Due to the unique movements and discontinuous appearances of Venus in the sky, mythology surrounding these figures often involved a fall from the heavens to earth or the underworld. Interpretations of a similar term in the Hebrew Bible , translated in the King James Version as "Lucifer" as a proper name, led to a Christian tradition of applying the name Lucifer, and its associated stories of a fall from heaven, to Satan , but modern scholarship generally translates the term in the relevant Bible passage, Isaiah 14 , as "morning star" or "shining one" rather than as a proper name, "Lucifer". As a name for the planet in its morning aspect, "Lucifer" Light-Bringer is a proper name and is capitalized in English. In Greco-Roman civilization , it was often personified and considered a god  and in some versions considered a son of Aurora the Dawn. The motif of a heavenly being striving for the highest seat of heaven only to be cast down to the underworld has its origins in the motions of the planet Venus , known as the morning star.
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Due to the unique movements and discontinuous appearances of Venus in the sky, mythology surrounding these figures often involved a fall from the heavens to earth or the underworld. Interpretations of a similar term in the Hebrew Bible , translated in the King James Version as "Lucifer" as a proper name, led to a Christian tradition of applying the name Lucifer, and its associated stories of a fall from heaven, to Satan , but modern scholarship generally translates the term in the relevant Bible passage, Isaiah 14 , as "morning star" or "shining one" rather than as a proper name, "Lucifer".
As a name for the planet in its morning aspect, "Lucifer" Light-Bringer is a proper name and is capitalized in English. In Greco-Roman civilization , it was often personified and considered a god  and in some versions considered a son of Aurora the Dawn.
The motif of a heavenly being striving for the highest seat of heaven only to be cast down to the underworld has its origins in the motions of the planet Venus , known as the morning star.
The Sumerian goddess Inanna Babylonian Ishtar is associated with the planet Venus, and Inanna's actions in several of her myths, including Inanna and Shukaletuda and Inanna's Descent into the Underworld appear to parallel the motion of Venus as it progresses through its synodic cycle. A similar theme is present in the Babylonian myth of Etana.
The Jewish Encyclopedia comments:. The fall from heaven motif also has a parallel in Canaanite mythology. In ancient Canaanite religion, the morning star is personified as the god Attar , who attempted to occupy the throne of Ba'al and, finding he was unable to do so, descended and ruled the underworld.
It argues that the closest parallels with Isaiah' s description of the king of Babylon as a fallen morning star cast down from heaven are to be found not in Canaanite myths but in traditional ideas of the Jewish people, echoed in the Biblical account of the fall of Adam and Eve , cast out of God's presence for wishing to be as God, and the picture in Psalm 82 of the "gods" and "sons of the Most High" destined to die and fall.
The Greek myth of Phaethon , a personification of the planet Jupiter ,  follows a similar pattern. In classical mythology, Lucifer "light-bringer" in Latin was the name of the planet Venus, though it was often personified as a male figure bearing a torch.
The Greek name for this planet was variously Phosphoros also meaning "light-bringer" or Heosphoros meaning "dawn-bringer". He was often presented in poetry as heralding the dawn. The Latin word corresponding to Greek "Phosphoros" is "Lucifer".
It is used in its astronomical sense both in prose  and poetry. This agreement leads to the reconstruction of a Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess. The second-century Roman mythographer Pseudo-Hyginus said of the planet: . Ovid , in his first-century epic Metamorphoses , describes Lucifer as ordering the heavens: .
The Latin poet Ovid , speaking of Phosphorus and Hesperus the Evening Star, the evening appearance of the planet Venus as identical, makes him the father of Daedalion. In the classical Roman period, Lucifer was not typically regarded as a deity and had few, if any, myths,  though the planet was associated with various deities and often poetically personified.
Cicero pointed out that "You say that Sol the Sun and Luna the Moon are deities, and the Greeks identify the former with Apollo and the latter with Diana.
According to the King James Bible -based Strong's Concordance , the original Hebrew word means "shining one, light-bearer", and the English translation given in the King James text is the Latin name for the planet Venus, "Lucifer",  as it was already in the Wycliffe Bible. In a modern translation from the original Hebrew, the passage in which the phrase "Lucifer" or "morning star" occurs begins with the statement: "On the day the Lord gives you relief from your suffering and turmoil and from the harsh labour forced on you, you will take up this taunt against the king of Babylon: How the oppressor has come to an end!
How his fury has ended! How you have fallen from heaven, morning star , son of the dawn! You have been cast down to the earth, you who once laid low the nations! You said in your heart, 'I will ascend to the heavens; I will raise my throne above the stars of God; I will sit enthroned on the mount of assembly, on the utmost heights of Mount Zaphon.
I will ascend above the tops of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High. Those who see you stare at you, they ponder your fate: 'Is this the man who shook the earth and made kingdoms tremble, the man who made the world a wilderness, who overthrew its cities and would not let his captives go home?
Carl Laney has pointed out that in the final verses here quoted, the king of Babylon is described not as a god or an angel but as a man, and that man may have been not Nebuchadnezzar II , but rather his son, Belshazzar. Nebuchadnezzar was gripped by a spiritual fervor to build a temple to the moon god Sin , and his son ruled as regent.
The Abrahamic scriptural texts could be interpreted as a weak usurping of true kingly power, and a taunt at the failed regency of Belshazzar. For the unnamed  "king of Babylon" a wide range of identifications have been proposed. Isaiah became a source for the popular conception of the fallen angel motif  seen later in 1 Enoch 86—90 and 2 Enoch —4. Rabbinical Judaism has rejected any belief in rebel or fallen angels. Some Christian writers have applied the name "Lucifer" as used in the Book of Isaiah, and the motif of a heavenly being cast down to the earth, to Satan.
Sigve K Tonstad argues that the New Testament War in Heaven theme of Revelation 12 Revelation —9 , in which the dragon "who is called the devil and Satan … was thrown down to the earth", was derived from the passage about the Babylonian king in Isaiah Some time later, the metaphor of the morning star that Isaiah applied to a king of Babylon gave rise to the general use of the Latin word for "morning star", capitalized, as the original name of the devil before his fall from grace, linking Isaiah with Luke 10 Luke "I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven" and interpreting the passage in Isaiah as an allegory of Satan's fall from heaven.
Adherents of the King James Only movement and others who hold that Isaiah does indeed refer to the devil have decried the modern translations. However, the understanding of the morning star in Isaiah as a metaphor referring to a king of Babylon continued also to exist among Christians.
Theodoret of Cyrus c. So too in other languages, such as French,  German,  Portuguese,  and Spanish. John Calvin said: "The exposition of this passage, which some have given, as if it referred to Satan, has arisen from ignorance: for the context plainly shows these statements must be understood in reference to the king of the Babylonians.
In the Bogomil and Cathar text Gospel of the secret supper , Lucifer is a glorified angel and the older brother of Jesus , but fell from heaven to establish his own kingdom and became the Demiurge. Therefore, he created the material world and trapped souls from heaven inside matter.
Jesus descended to earth to free the captured souls. Mormon theology teaches that in a heavenly council , Lucifer rebelled against the plan of God the Father and was subsequently cast out.
And we beheld, and lo, he is fallen! And while we were yet in the Spirit, the Lord commanded us that we should write the vision; for we beheld Satan, that old serpent, even the devil, who rebelled against God, and sought to take the kingdom of our God and his Christ—Wherefore, he maketh war with the saints of God, and encompasseth them round about.
After becoming Satan by his fall, Lucifer "goeth up and down, to and fro in the earth, seeking to destroy the souls of men". Other instances of lucifer in the Old Testament pseudepigrapha are related to the "star" Venus , in the Sibylline Oracles battle of the constellations line "Lucifer fought mounted on the back of Leo",  or the entirely rewritten Christian version of the Greek Apocalypse of Ezra which has a reference to Lucifer as Antichrist.
Isaiah is not the only place where the Vulgate uses the word lucifer. It uses the same word four more times, in contexts where it clearly has no reference to a fallen angel: 2 Peter meaning "morning star" , Job "the light of the morning" , Job "the signs of the zodiac" and Psalms "the dawn".
Indications that in Christian tradition the Latin word lucifer , unlike the English word, did not necessarily call a fallen angel to mind exist also outside the text of the Vulgate. In Latin, the word is applied to John the Baptist and is used as a title of Jesus himself in several early Christian hymns.
The morning hymn Lucis largitor splendide of Hilary contains the line: " Tu verus mundi lucifer " you are the true light bringer of the world. The Latin word lucifer is also used of Jesus in the Easter Proclamation prayer to God regarding the paschal candle : Flammas eius lucifer matutinus inveniat: ille, inquam, lucifer, qui nescit occasum.
Christus Filius tuus, qui, regressus ab inferis, humano generi serenus illuxit, et vivit et regnat in saecula saeculorum "May this flame be found still burning by the Morning Star: the one Morning Star who never sets, Christ your Son, who, coming back from death's domain, has shed his peaceful light on humanity, and lives and reigns for ever and ever".
In the works of Latin grammarians, Lucifer, like Daniel, was discussed as an example of a personal name. Rudolf Steiner 's writings, which formed the basis for Anthroposophy , characterised Lucifer as a spiritual opposite to Ahriman , with Christ between the two forces, mediating a balanced path for humanity.
Lucifer represents an intellectual, imaginative, delusional, otherworldly force which might be associated with visions, subjectivity, psychosis and fantasy. Steiner believed that Lucifer, as a supersensible Being, had incarnated in China about years before the birth of Christ. Luciferianism is a belief structure that venerates the fundamental traits that are attributed to Lucifer. The custom, inspired by the teachings of Gnosticism , usually reveres Lucifer not as the devil, but as a savior, a guardian or instructing spirit  or even the true god as opposed to Jehovah.
In Anton LaVey 's The Satanic Bible , Lucifer is one of the four crown princes of hell , particularly that of the East, the 'lord of the air ', and is called the bringer of light, the morning star, intellectualism, and enlightenment. Author Michael W. Ford has written on Lucifer as a "mask" of the adversary, a motivator and illuminating force of the mind and subconscious.
In what is known as the Taxil hoax , he alleged that leading Freemason Albert Pike had addressed "The 23 Supreme Confederated Councils of the world" an invention of Taxil , instructing them that Lucifer was God, and was in opposition to the evil god Adonai. Taxil promoted a book by Diana Vaughan actually written by himself, as he later confessed publicly  that purported to reveal a highly secret ruling body called the Palladium , which controlled the organization and had a satanic agenda.
As described by Freemasonry Disclosed in With frightening cynicism, the miserable person we shall not name here [Taxil] declared before an assembly especially convened for him that for twelve years he had prepared and carried out to the end the most sacrilegious of hoaxes. We have always been careful to publish special articles concerning Palladism and Diana Vaughan. We are now giving in this issue a complete list of these articles, which can now be considered as not having existed.
Supporters of Freemasonry assert that, when Albert Pike and other Masonic scholars spoke about the "Luciferian path," or the "energies of Lucifer," they were referring to the Morning Star, the light bearer, the search for light; the very antithesis of dark. Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish Souls? Doubt it not! Taxil's work and Pike's address continue to be quoted by anti-masonic groups.
In Devil-Worship in France , Arthur Edward Waite compared Taxil's work to today's tabloid journalism , replete with logical and factual inconsistencies. In a collection of folklore and magical practices supposedly collected in Italy by Charles Godfrey Leland and published in his Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches , the figure of Lucifer is featured prominently as both the brother and consort of the goddess Diana , and father of Aradia , at the center of an alleged Italian witch-cult.
According to Leland, after dividing herself into light and darkness:. Here, the motions of Diana and Lucifer once again mirror the celestial motions of the moon and Venus, respectively. In the several modern Wiccan traditions based in part on Leland's work, the figure of Lucifer is usually either omitted or replaced as Diana's consort with either the Etruscan god Tagni , or Dianus Janus , following the work of folklorist James Frazer in The Golden Bough.
Lucifer, by William Blake , for Dante's Inferno , canto Cover of edition of Mario Rapisardi 's poem Lucifero. Mayor Hall and Lucifer, by an unknown artist From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 28 May This article is about the mythological and religious figure.
For other uses, see Lucifer disambiguation. See also: Morning star. The planet Venus as the morning star. Main article: Venus in culture. Main article: Devil in Christianity. Lucifer, by Alessandro Vellutello , for Dante's Inferno , canto Main article: Lucifer in popular culture.
The Mamre Institute. Retrieved 29 December
A Look at Satan Through the Eyes of the Luciferians
Luciferianism is a belief system that venerates the essential characteristics that are affixed to Lucifer. The tradition, influenced by Gnosticism , usually reveres Lucifer not as the devil, but as a destroyer, a guardian, light bringer or guiding spirit to darkness,  or even the true god as opposed to Jehovah. Later Christian tradition came to use the Latin word for "morning star", lucifer , as a proper name "Lucifer" for the Devil ; as he was before his fall. However, according to both Christian  and Jewish exegesis , in Chapter 14 of the Book of Isaiah , the King of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar II , conqueror of Jerusalem, is condemned in a prophetic vision by the prophet Isaiah and is called the "Morning Star" planet Venus. Though associated with Satanism , a philosophy based on the Christian interpretation of the fallen angel , Luciferianism differs in that it does not revere merely the devil figure or Satan but the broader figure of Lucifer , an entity representing various interpretations of "the morning star" as understood by ancient cultures such as the Greeks and Egyptians. Luciferians generally support the protection of the natural world.