Abstract Sex investigates the impact of advances in contemporary science and information technology on conceptions of sex. Evolutionary theory and the technologies of viral information transfer, cloning and genetic engineering are changing the way Du kanske gillar. White Fragility Robin Diangelo E-bok.
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According t o Luciana Parisi, t his approach ref uses t o acknowledge t he realit y of algorit hms as also independent , bot h abst ract and act ual ent it ies. As object s t hat seem t o occupy t he middle zone or t he gap, bet ween discret eness and inf init y, abst ract ion and act ualit y, calculat ion and indet erminacy, algorit hms — part icularly, f or Parisi, in t he case st udy of digit al archit ect ure — reveal comput at ion t o pot ent ially be a f orm of speculat ive t hought in it self.
At t he same t ime, and according t o t heir t reat ment in t he book, t hey expose reason and logic t o t he novelt y and creat ivit y of t he incomput able. Incomput able quant it ies are at t he core of t his new algorit hmic logic t hat t he book st rives t o engineer, as discussed in Chapt er One. Omega def ines an algorit hmically incompressible real number locat ed somewhere bet ween 0 and 1 which at some point in it s calculat ion f orces t he limit ed resources of any comput er t o come t o a halt.
Omega t heref ore suggest s t hat t here is no codif ied simplicit y at t he bot t om of complexit y. Omega, t hus, is used t o challenge a discret e model of t he universe as well as permit room f or conceiving number out side t he conf ines of f init e, perf ect , precise mat hemat ical models. It does so by unpacking an alt oget her dif f erent discret e philosophy t hat at t empt s t o t hink it s int ernal discrepancies and speculat e on what algorit hms are and what t hey can do.
T his revision of t he digit al involves an analysis of f irst and second order cybernet ics and inf ormat ion t heory, as well as t heir subsequent impact on debat es about mediat ion, int eract ivit y, cult ural aest het ics, power, and cont rol. First —order cybernet ics ref ers t o closed, self - suf f icient syst ems t hat are observable f rom t he out side and t o causal processes, such as cont rol, f eedback, and adapt ion. Second-order cybernet ics, which Parisi argues const it ut es t he dominant int eract ive paradigm of capit alism t oday, revolves around t he idea t hat t he observer is also part of t he syst em and concerns not ions of ref lexivit y, self -organisat ion, aut opoiesis, t he cont ingency of environment al f act ors, and t he indet erminacy of living syst ems.
T he book f ollows t he conject ure t hat t his second int eract ive model, which is also at t he core of digit al archit ect ural processes, does not quit e reach it s f ull pot ent ial and deliver what it had promised: t hat is, a new organisat ion of dat a and concept ion of t he incomput able chance, randomness, and complexit y as int egral t o comput at ion.
T he lat t er cont ent s t hat a logic and reason are becoming aest het ic operat ions def ined by algorit hmic prehension, and b incomput abilit y and a new f orm of algorit hmic ent ropy i. Leaving behind t he t opological schema t hat presumes algorit hms t o be subject ed t o cont inuous, sequent ial order result s and evolving in t ime,1 t he book t urns inst ead t o paramet ricism and t he mereot opological order of event s. Mereot opology suggest s t hat spat iot emporal ent it ies do not pre-exist but are purely t he out come of prehensions, crucially of f ering an alt ernat ive model of whole-t o-part s connect ion.
In Whit ehead, prehensions def ine what an act ual occasion event is and how it relat es t o ot hers. More t han t his, prehension is here equat ed t o cont agion, as Parisi explains t hat t o prehend is t o be inf ect ed wit h inf init e variet ies of quant it ies but wit hout , in t urn, being able t o change t hem.
T heref ore algorit hms are act ual object s t hat prehend bot h t he f ormal syst em int o which t hey belong but also t he ext ernal dat a t hey ret reat. T his view is very dif f erent f rom t he t opological st andpoint of paramet ricism, t he current global st yle of f luid archit ect ure, which assumes event s as deriving f rom a relat ional cont inuit y bet ween inf init esimal point s of cont ingencies t hat lie out side t he program.
By plugging int o t he mereot opological schema, which unlike t opology denies any reciprocit y bet ween cont rol and event s, Chapt er T wo argues t hat paramet ricism can expose t he increasing aut onomy of algorit hmic ent it ies, quant it ies, and paramet ers f rom human t hought.
It suggest s t hat new aest het ic f orms are developing in t he hypercapit alist sphere af f ect ing and af f ect ed by current design and comput at ional pract ices and prompt ing a reconsiderat ion of t he quest ions of power and cont rol. T he vigour of t he book t ruly comes f ort h in places where Parisi put s f orward new concept s and uses t hem as probes t o get t o somewhere new; such as wit h her t erm sof t ware t hought in Chapt er T hree, which she conceives as a mode t hat is complet ely aut onomous f rom cognit ion and percept ion.
In t his part , Cont agious Archit ect ure rounds up it s larger int ent of mapping comput at ion — t hrough it s cent ralit y t o digit al archit ect ure — as a speculat ive operat ion t raversed by inf init ies.
If digit al design can be seen as an inst ance of sof t t hought , it can also help demonst rat e t hat t his mode of t hought is act ually a f orm of immanent experience, not reducible t o new spat iot emporal phenomenological experiences. As she indicat es, sof t t hought t hreat ens t he assumpt ion t hat comput at ion is just anot her f unct ion of reason and t hat algorit hms are reducible t o a human mind and sensorimot or syst em.
It is part of a wider at t empt t o overt urn what is meant by t he digit al and t o challenge it s casual associat ions wit h int eract ivit y, communicat ion, and cont rol, as inherit ed f rom t he f irst wave of cybernet ics and st ill haunt ing digit al cult ure, art , and t heory t oday.
In so doing, it brings f ort h t he pot ency of an unlived realit y inseparable f rom comput at ion and lurking in t he shadows of t he everyday. T his int ent ion is shared by a current wave of media t heorist s and a body of work t hat , on t he surf ace, seems t o undert ake an impossible t ask: human t hought acquiring nonhuman perspect ive.
But why now? What enables, probes, and unleashes t his urgency t o ret hink t he digit al by speculat ing t hat we do not even know what it can do?
Cont agious Archit ect ures belongs t o t his realm of risky t hought , dissect ing t he ways in which algorit hms might exceed det erminat ion, and, in so doing, daring t o explore a capacit y in t hinking beyond or wit hout decision.
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Algorithmic Thought: a review of Contagious Architecture by Luciana Parisi
This seminar series offers a critical reflection about the philosophical, aesthetic and political consequences of the increasing dominance of automated systems in contemporary culture. In particular, it is set to explore the tension between computation and philosophy, ratio and logic, measure and metaphysics as a central to our understanding of technology today. The seminars will revolve around the history of cybernetics and computation to discuss the transformation of mechanical automata into predictive systems that do not simply reproduce, but anticipate actions and make decisions. The seminars will start from the premise that this transformation of automation shall to be addressed in the context of philosophical understandings of reason and reasoning. The first seminar will focus on the tension between cybernetics as the efficient machine of reasoning and metaphysics as a model of theoretical thought. It explores the possibility of a cybernetic metaphysics as a way to re-assess the critical and post-critical understanding of the significance of the machine in human culture.