Historical challenge for dynamic design that provides sense of unity in Tokyo Olympics venue. Admired Le Corbusier and joined the architectural design office of his pupil Kunio Maekawa. Enrolled in graduate school at Tokyo Imperial University in , and, after graduating, taught at his alma mater from to ; then established and became president of Tange Laboratory. In the s, he was the first Japanese architect to combine elements of traditional Japanese with modern Western styles of architecture. During this period of postwar Japan, he was involved in design of many public architecture projects such as local government buildings.
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Pritzker Prize , Brutalism. Kenzo Tange September 4, — March 22, was a Japanese architect, and winner of the Pritzker Prize for architecture. He was one of the significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism, and designed major buildings on five continents.
Strongly influenced by Le Corbusier 's books, Kenzo Tange was also an influential protagonist of the movement structuralism. In , Tange won the architecture competition for design of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima city, four years after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in For Tange it was the city's 'spiritual core. His Pritzker Prize citation described it as "among the most beautiful buildings of the 20th century. Early life Tange spent his early life in the Chinese cities of Hankow and Shanghai; he and his family returned to Japan after learning of the death of one of his uncles.
In contrast to the green lawns and red bricks in their Shanghai abode, the Tange family took up residence in a thatched roof farmhouse in Imabari on the island of Shikoku. After finishing middle school, Tange moved to Hiroshima in to attend high school.
It was here that he first encountered the works of Swiss modernist, Le Corbusier. His discovery of the drawings of the Palace of the Soviets in a foreign art journal convinced him to become an architect.
Although he graduated from high school, Tange's poor results in mathematics and physics meant that he had to pass entrance exams to qualify for admission to the prestigious universities. He spent two years doing so and during that time, he read extensively about western philosophy. Tange also enrolled in the film division at Nihon University's art department to dodge Japan's drafting of young men to its military and seldom attended classes.
In Tange began the tertiary studies he desired at University of Tokyo's architecture department. He studied under Hideto Kishida and Shozo Uchida. Although Tange was fascinated by the photographs of Katsura villa that sat on Kishida's desk, his work was inspired by Le Corbusier. His graduation project was a seventeen-hectare development set in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. Early career After graduating from the university, Tange started to work as an architect at the office of Kunio Maekawa.
During his employment, he travelled to Manchuria, participating in an architectural design competition for a bank, and toured Japanese-occupied Jehol on his return. He developed an interest in urban design, and referencing only the resources available in the university library, he embarked on a study of Greek and Roman marketplaces. He was awarded first prize for a design that would have been situated at the base of Mount Fuji; the hall he conceived was a fusion of Shinto shrine architecture and the plaza on Capitoline Hill in Rome.
The design was not realised. In , Tange became an assistant professor at the university and opened Tange Laboratory. In , he was promoted to professor of the Department of Urban Engineering. Post war reconstruction Tange's interest in urban studies put him in a good position to handle post war reconstruction.
In the summer of he was invited by the War Damage Rehabilitation Board to put forward a proposal for certain war damaged cities; he submitted plans for Hiroshima and Maebashi. His design for an airport in Kanon was accepted and built, but a seaside park in Ujina was not. The Hiroshima authorities took a lot of advice about the city's reconstruction from foreign consultants and in Tam Deling, an American park planner, suggested to build a Peace Memorial and to preserve buildings situated near ground zero directly below the explosion of the atomic bomb.
In the authorities enacted the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Reconstruction Act, which gave the city access to special grant aid, and in August that year, an international competition was announced for the design of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Tange was awarded first prize for a design that proposed a museum whose axis runs through the park, intersecting Peace Boulevard and the atomic bomb dome. The building is raised on massive piloti columns , which frame the views along the structure's axis.
The international design community was focused on Japan and the Tokyo World Design Conference scheduled for As the program chairman for the conference, Kenzo Tange was inspired to work on a proposal for a large-scale urban design scheme. During his visiting professorship at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in , Kenzo Tange worked for four months with a fifth-year design studio on an urban design scheme that would accommodate housing for 25, people over the Boston Bay.
This experience helped to develop and clarify Kenzo Tange's ideas on a plan for Tokyo. The plan proposed a linear organized matrix for Tokyo Bay, which was to be an extension of the uncontrolled expansion of the city proper. This urban matrix was an adaptation of Kenzo Tange's architectural notions of structural order, expression, and urban "communication space.
The Tokyo plan led Kenzo Tange to begin an architectural exploration of the plastic nature of suspended structural form in his design for Saint Mary's Cathedral, Tokyo This exploration demonstrated a significant break with Kenzo Tange's Corbusian past and cul minated in his design for the Olympic Sports Hall, Tokyo In , the first megastructural complex combining Kenzo Tange's notions of structural expression and the metabolists' notions of growth systems was constructed. Kenzo Tange continued to develop the ideas brought together in the Yamanashi Press and Bradcasting Center.
The KUwait Embassy and Chancery Building in Tokyo and the University of Oran proposal in Algeria each demonstrate further development of a metabolic architecture that suggests incompleteness, flexibility, and the potential for change and growth.
The international oil crisis and popular skepticism, in the mids, of large-scale urban projects based on megastructures reduced the number of projects of this type in Japan. Most of Kenzo Tange's practice shifted to the developing, oil-rich Arab countries where Kenzo Tange continued to apply his stmcturalist-metabolistic ideas to projects such as the Moroccan Capital and International Congress Hall Kenzo Tange's smaller, individual projects reflect his return to the aesthetics of the late modern movement, as can be seen in the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts Building, Minnesota , the Hanae Moi Building in Tokyo , and the Akasaka Prince Hotel, Tokyo Kenzo Tange's interest in old Japanese traditions, in which many of his aesthetic principles have their roots, has been demonstrated by Kenzo Tange's collaboration with Naburo Kawazoe on the following publications: Katsura: Tradition and Creation in Japanese Architecture , foreword by Walter Gropius, and Ise: Prototype of Japanese Architecture Later career During the s and s Tange expanded his portfolio to include buildings in over 20 countries around the world.
In , at the behest of Jacques Chirac, the mayor of Paris at that time, Tange proposed a master plan for a plaza at Place d'Italie that would interconnect the city along an east-west axis. For the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, which opened in , Tange designed a large civic centre with a plaza dominated by two skyscrapers. These house the administration offices whilst a smaller seven-storey building contains assembly facilities.
In his design of a high tech version of Kofu Communications Centre, Tange equipped all three buildings with state-of-the-art building management systems that monitored air quality, light levels and security. The external skin of the building makes dual references to both tradition and the modern condition. Tange incorporated vertical and horizontal lines reminiscent of both timber boarding and the lines on semiconductor boards.
Tange continued to practice until three years before his death in He disliked postmodernism in the s and considered this style of architecture to be only "transitional architectural expressions". His funeral was held in one of his works, the Tokyo Cathedral. Legacy The modular expansion of Tange's Metabolist visions had some influence on Archigram with their plug-in mega structures.
The Metabolist movement gave momentum to Kikutake's career. Although the Osaka Expo had marked a decline in the Metabolist movement, it resulted in a "handing over" of the reigns to a younger generation of architects such as Kazuo Shinohara and Arata Isozaki.
In an interview with Jeremy Melvin at the Royal Academy of Arts, Kengo Kuma explained that, at the age of ten, he was inspired to become an architect after seeing Tange's Olympic arenas, which were constructed in For Reyner Banham, Tange was a prime exemplar of the use of Brutalist architecture.
Brutalist architecture has been criticised for being soulless and for promoting the exclusive use of a material that is poor at withstanding long exposures to natural weather. Login Register Help. Search Search Keywords. Kenzo Tange Change this. Change this Tokyo, Japan born , Imabari.
In Tange returned to the university to study city planning , and in he was named professor there; he became professor emeritus in In the years that followed, he designed an outstanding series of public buildings, including the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office , the Shizuoka Convention Hall , city halls at Kurayoshi and Kurashiki , and the Kagawa prefectural offices , the latter being considered a particularly fine example of the blending of modern and Japanese traditional architecture. Most of these early structures were conventional rectangular forms using light steel frames. For the Olympic Games in Tokyo, he designed the National Gymnasiums; the two structures featured sweeping curved roofs and an asymmetrical but balanced design that masterfully assimilated traditional techniques.
He was one of the most significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism , and designed major buildings on five continents. His career spanned the entire second half of the twentieth century, producing numerous distinctive buildings in Tokyo, other Japanese cities and cities around the world, as well as ambitious physical plans for Tokyo and its environs. Influenced from an early age by the Swiss modernist, Le Corbusier , Tange gained international recognition in when he won the competition for the design of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. He did not join the group of younger CIAM architects known as Team X , though his Tokyo Bay plan was influential for Team 10 in the s, as well as the group that became Metabolism. His university studies on urbanism put him in an ideal position to handle redevelopment projects after the Second World War.
Kenzo Tange Biography
Summer has taught creative writing and sciences at the college level. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Log in or Sign up. Kenzo Tange once said, 'architecture must have something that appeals to the human heart. He mixed traditional Japanese architecture with modern architecture principles.
Kenzo Tange: Architecture, Buildings & Biography
The Japanese architect Kenzo Tange born , a student of Le Corbusier, was one of the first modern architects in Japan and played an important design role in postwar rebuilding of Japanese cities. Kenzo Tange was born in in the town of Imabari on Shikoku, the smallest of the four principal islands in the Japanese archipelago. He received his degree in architecture from the University of Tokyo in and returned to the university to do graduate studies in urban planning and design between and The four intervening years were spent in the Tokyo architectural firm of Kunio Maekawa, who had worked in the Paris office of the great Swiss architect Le Corbusier and who was one of a small number of modern architects in Japan at the time. Thus, at the end of World War II Tange was equipped to play a major design role in the reconstruction of Japan's war-ravaged cities. In , after participating in planning studies to aid the rebuilding of numerous towns and cities, Tange won a national competition to design a Peace Park in central Hiroshima, the area that had been directly hit by the atomic bomb dropped from an American plane on August 6, The complex, comprising a memorial, a museum, a community center, and an auditorium-hotel building, was completed in