HODGKIN LENFOMA PDF

Histopathological proof is needed to confirm a definitive diagnosis. Patients with RT generally have a poor prognosis, with prompt recognition optimise clinical management. Figure 1a. Figure 1b. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features!

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Doctors are not sure about the cause of lymphoma. Lymphoma is a type of cancer that begins in lymphocytes T cells or B cells. Those are white blood cells- a part of immune system fighting against diseases. In lymphoma, there are abnormal number of lymphocytes in lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels and other organs of body. Lymphatic system includes the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and bone marrow.

Lymphoma may affect all these and other body organs. The best treatment option depends on the type and severity of lymphoma. Treatment may include chemotherapy, immunotherapy drugs, radiation therapy or bone marrow transplant. Lymphoma occurs when genetic code of a white blood cell fighting against diseases, namely lymphocyte, develops a mutation. This mutation triggers the cell to multiply fast and causes the existence of many diseased lymphocytes that continue multiplying. Mutations also ensure that those cells continue living while others die.

This leads to presence of too many diseased and ineffective lymphocytes in lymph nodes and swelling in lymph nodes. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL is a type of cancer in blood and bone marrow —which is the spongy tissue inside the bones-. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia most commonly affects the elders.

There are treatments that help controlling this disease. Many people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia do not show any sign at early stage. Individuals developing signs and symptoms may experience the following:. Doctors are not sure about the factors that start the process leading to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Doctors are aware of the fact that there is something that causes a genetic mutation in DNA of blood producing cells. This mutation makes the blood cells produce abnormal, ineffective lymphocytes — a type of white blood cell that helps the body fight against infection-.

Those abnormal lymphocytes not only are ineffective but they also continue living and multiplying after the normal lymphocytes die. The abnormal lymphocytes accumulate in blood and specific organs and lead to complications. They may push the healthy cells outside the bone marrow and affect normal blood cell production. Doctors and researches work to understand the certain mechanism causing chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Treatment choices for lymphoma depend on the type, degree of aggression and your treatment targets.

Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma is a rare cancer type which occurs in white blood cells and attacks to skin. Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma starts in B-cells —a type of white blood cells fighting against diseases called lymphocytes-. Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma may develop as a subcutaneous nodule which can have the same color with your skin or can be pink or purple.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a rare cancer type which occurs in white blood cells and attacks to skin. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is one of the several lymphoma types which are jointly called as non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma can cause rash-like redness and sometimes skin tumors. Treatments may include skin creams, light therapy, drugs and radiation therapy. If you have Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, your bone marrow produces too many abnormal white blood cells that they exceed the healthy blood cells in number.

Abnormal white blood cells produce a type of protein that accumulates in blood, impairs the circulation and causes complications. Sometimes, it is called as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Doctors know that the disease starts with an abnormal white blood cell that causes errors mutations in genetic code. Those errors make the cell continue multiplying fast. As the cancer cells do not grow and die like normal cells, they accumulate in body and they finally dominate the production of healthy cells.

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia removes the healthy blood cells from bone marrow which produces blood and fills the centers of many of your bones. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia cells continue trying to produce antibody as the healthy white blood cells do; however, they produce abnormal proteins that are not used by the body. Immunoglobulin M IgM protein accumulates in blood, impairs the circulation and causes complications.

Fill in the Online Appointment form and our patient representatives will call you back. Let's schedule your appointment together. Facebook Twitter Youtube. Online Appointment. Call Us. What is lymphoma? Lymphoma is the cancer of lymphatic system which is the germ-fighting network of body. What are the types of lymphoma? There are many types of lymphoma.

What are lymphoma types? Signs and symptoms of lymphoma include the following: Enlarged lymph nodes that can occur in any part of body, most likely in neck, armpit or groin Fatigue Fever Nocturnal sweating Shortness of breath Weight loss What are the causes of lymphoma? What are the risk factors of lymphoma? Factors increasing risk of lymphoma include the following: Advanced age. Risk increases parallel to aging; however, this disease may develop at any age.

Some types are more common amongst young adults. Being male. Lymphoma is more common in men comparing to women. Impaired immune system. The disease is more likely to occur in individuals with immune system disorder or the ones using immunosuppressive drugs. Development of specific infections. Some infections like Epstein-Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori are related to increased risk of lymphoma. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Overview Chronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL is a type of cancer in blood and bone marrow —which is the spongy tissue inside the bones-.

Signs of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Many people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia do not show any sign at early stage. Individuals developing signs and symptoms may experience the following: Enlarged, although painless, lymph nodes Fatigue Fever Pain at left upper region of abdomen which can be caused by enlarged spleen Nocturnal sweating Weight loss Frequent infection Causes of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Doctors are not sure about the factors that start the process leading to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Factors that can increase the risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia include the following: Your age. Most of the people who are diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia are above the age of Your race. Whites more commonly develop chronic lymphocytic leukemia comparing to individuals of other races. Familial history of blood and bone marrow cancer.

Familial history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or other blood and bone marrow cancers may increase your risk. Exposure to chemicals. Specific herbicides and insecticides, including Agent Orange which was used in Vietnam War, are related to increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. What are the complications of lymphoma? Chronic lymphocytic leukemia may cause complications such as the following: Frequent infections. Individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia can suffer infections frequently.

For most of the patients, those infections are common upper and lower respiratory tract infections. However, sometimes, more severe infections may develop. Switching of cancer to a more aggressive form. A few people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia may develop a more aggressive form of cancer which is called diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Increase in risk of other cancers. Individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia may have an increased risk of other cancer types, including but not limited to skin cancers such as melanoma and lung and digestive system cancers.

Immune system disorders. A few people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia can develop an immune system disorder that make the cells of immune system fighting against the disease attack red blood cells or platelets by mistake.

How is lymphoma diagnosed? Bone Marrow Biopsy: Tests and procedures for diagnosing lymphoma include the following: Physical examination. Your doctor may examine your body to investigate signs of enlarged lymph nodes. Removal of lymph node for examination. Your doctor may recommend lymph node biopsy procedure for removal of a lymph node —or a part of it- to be examined in laboratory.

Developed tests can determine whether there are lymphoma cells or which cell types are involved. Blood tests. Blood tests determining the cell count in a blood sample of yours may give your doctor a clue for your diagnosis. Collecting bone marrow sample for examination. Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration procedure is performed by inserting a needle into the femur to collect a bone marrow sample.

This sample is analyzed to seek lymphoma cells. Imaging tests. Imaging tests can be used to investigate signs of lymphoma in other body parts. How is lymphoma treated?

Treatments include the following: Active monitoring.

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Detection of Hodgkin Transformation in a Case of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia by PET/CT

Hodgkin lymphoma HL is a type of lymphoma in which cancer originates from a specific type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. There are two major types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma may be treated with chemotherapy , radiation therapy , and stem cell transplant. In , about , people globally had Hodgkin lymphoma, and 23, 4. Hodgkin lymphoma must be distinguished from non-cancerous causes of lymph node swelling such as various infections and from other types of cancer. Definitive diagnosis is by lymph node biopsy usually excisional biopsy with microscopic examination.

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