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These lie between two alternative aesthetic meanings: contemplation and engagement. I call these the observational landscape and the landscape of engagement. Each encourages a different mode of experience, and each implies different kinds and degrees of motion. They also encourage different conceptions of design. Of course, few gardens are exclusively observational. Most lie somewhere between these two models, and develop under the influence of politics, economics, social, cultural, and historical forces.
Yet once we go down the garden path, we cannot help but engage with the garden. We can even think of the garden as the embodiment of motion. For the primary motion of the visitor is echoed in the reciprocal motion of the landscape.
Yet, however their design comes about, these two meanings of landscape lie before us. Examining their differences can help us decide which approach to garden design reflects the kind of experiences we want to encourage.
Further, these differences enable us to realize how a garden aesthetic embodies an understanding of the human place in the world. Arnold Berleant is professor of philosophy emeritus at the C.
Post Campus of Long Island University, where he taught from to Berleant has also composed music for a variety of instrumental and vocal combinations, and his compositions have been performed in the U.
Conferences and Tertulias Speaker List. Arnold Berleant.
List of Compositions. He is the author of books and articles in philosophy , particularly in aesthetics, environmental aesthetics , and ethics. In music he is active as a pianist and composer. Sense perception lies at the etymological core of aesthetics Gr. Berleant finds in the aesthetic a source, a sign, and a standard of human value. It is basic in the two areas in which he has mainly worked: philosophy, especially the philosophy of the arts and environmental aesthetics, and music. Berleant's philosophical ideas develop out of a radical interpretation of experience influenced by the non-foundational naturalism of pragmatism and the undivided directness of existential phenomenology.
Arnold Berleant born 4 March  is an American scholar and author who is active both in philosophy and music. Arnold Berleant was born in Buffalo, New York . He received his advanced musical education at the Eastman School of Music and his doctorate in philosophy at the State University of New York at Buffalo. His books and articles in philosophy focus on aesthetics , environmental aesthetics , and ethics. Arnold Berleant is the founding editor of Contemporary Aesthetics , an international on-line journal of contemporary aesthetic theory , research, and application. As a philosopher Berleant has written on important aspects of both aesthetic theory and the arts. These include ontological and metaphysical issues, basic theoretical questions such as appreciation and aesthetic experience, and explorations of music, architecture, painting and literature.