David C. Robacker, Martin Aluja, Allard A. Attraction of virgin female Anastrepha serpentina Wiedemann Diptera: Tephritidae to the odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone-mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine DMP and 3,6-dihydro-2,5-dimethylpyrazine DHDMP , and trimethylpyrazine TMP , a minor component, were tested for pheromonal activity.
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The sapote fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina Wiedemann , sometimes called the serpentine fruit fly, is intercepted frequently in United States ports of entry in various hosts from several countries. It is an important pest species in Mexico because its larvae infest sapote, sapodilla, willowleaf lucuma, and related fruits. This species is one of the most widely distributed in the genus Anastrepha. It has also been trapped in southern Texas in the USA, but it is uncertain whether it has breeding populations there Norrbom If Anastrepha serpentina were introduced into southern Florida, it could possibly become a serious pest of the tropical fruits grown there.
The dorsum of the thorax is dark brown with yellow markings. The wing is 7. Wing bands are predominantly dark brown, and the costal and S bands are rather broadly coalescent. The proximal arm is slender and entirely separated from the S band. The dorsum of the abdomen is marked with dark brown, brownish yellow, and orange. Leg color varies from pale yellow to brownish yellow, or brown on one side and pale yellow on the other.
The ovipositor sheath of the female is 3. The spiracles are about 1. The ovipositor itself is 2. Larva: The mature larva is relatively large for fruit flies, 9—10 mm long and 1. Anterior respiratory organs have the external parts somewhat fan-shaped, but nearly flat across the top, with 17 to 19 small, thick, short tubules.
For detailed larval characters, see Phillips Anastrepha serpentina , the type of the genus, is one of a group of four species that differ noticeably in color pattern from other species in the genus. As illustrated by Stone , Anastrepha anomala Stone has the wing pattern as in Anastrepha serpentina , but has a longer ovipositor and a reduced dark pattern on the pleura and abdomen.
Anastrepha ornata Aldrich has the costal and V bands separated, and Anastrepha pulchra Stone has a large black spot in the disk of the wing. Females may oviposit up to eggs in about one and a half months.
Mature green fruits apparently are preferred. Females have been observed to continue oviposition over periods extending from 21 to 29 weeks under laboratory conditions.
Figure 3. Egg of the sapote fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina , compared with other common Anastrepha species. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. The preferred food plants are members of the family Sapotaceae, especially star-apple, Chrysophyllum cainito , and sapodilla, Manilkara zapota.
Other hosts include:. Infestations in tree-ripe fruits frequently are so high that in parts of Mexico, especially in Veracruz, growers pick the fruits green and ripen them artificially to avoid infestation. Fruits so ripened, however, are inferior to tree-ripened fruits. Figure 1. Adult female. Figure 2. Ovipositor tip. Life cycle and Biology Back to Top Females may oviposit up to eggs in about one and a half months. Hosts Back to Top The preferred food plants are members of the family Sapotaceae, especially star-apple, Chrysophyllum cainito , and sapodilla, Manilkara zapota.
Other hosts include: Annona glabra , pond-apple Citrus mitis , calamondin; Citrus paradisi , grapefruit; Citrus sinensis , sweet orange Cydonia oblonga , quince Dovyalis hebecarpa , 'Ceylon gooseberry' Ficus spp. Malus sylvestris , European wild apple Mammea americana , mammee apple Mangifera indica , mango Mimusops coriacea , monkey's apple Persea americana , avocado Pouteria lucuma , 'lucuma'; Pouteria sapota , mamey sapote Prunus persica , peach Psidium guajava , common guava Pyrus communis , European pear Sideroxylon palmeri and Sideroxylon tempisque , bully trees Spondias mombin , jobo or hog plum Also, larvae have been reared experimentally from tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum.
Damage Back to Top Infestations in tree-ripe fruits frequently are so high that in parts of Mexico, especially in Veracruz, growers pick the fruits green and ripen them artificially to avoid infestation. A review of the Mexican fruitfly and related species.
Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication No. Phillips VT. The biology and identification of trypetid larvae Diptera: Trypetidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 12, pp.
Stone A. The fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. Fruit flies of economic significance: Their identification and bionomics. CAB International. Oxon, UK.
EPPO Global Database
It is a widespread species in the American tropics, occurring from Mexico to Argentina. It has been intercepted and trapped in the USA Florida, California and other countries outside its range indicating its potential for spread via infested fruits. This species was first described as Dacus serpentinus by Wiedemann It has been classified in several different genera. The current combination was proposed by Schiner in For a general description of the genus, see the datasheet on Anastrepha.
List of symptoms / signs
Anastrepha serpentina Wiedemann is recorded for the first time in citrus Rutaceae in Brazil. Anastrepha serpentina Wiedemann occurs in 20 Brazilian states Zucchi and in the Federal District Zahler associated with 16 host species belonging to Sapotaceae 10 hosts , Rubiaceae 2 , Anacardiaceae 1 , Clusiaceae 1 Hippocrateaceae 1 and Moraceae 1 Zucchi The preferred hosts of A. This paper reports the first record of A. Two males and one female of A. The highest infestation was 8.
This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens Loew , Anastrepha serpentina Wiedemann , and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart Diptera: Tephritidae may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae , growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3, kg of guavas and kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L. Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20, Anastrepha spp.