Despite the Creative Commons license, please inform the author of the use which will be made of his photo. Corresponds to a report on the basis of at least one observation proved within a period of 10 years 20 years for little-known invertebrates preceding the year and no presumption of extinction since obtaining the last data nor doubt on reproductive and implemented nature of this population. For migratory species, the presence indicated concerns areas of reproduction. This status is based on one or more of the following criteria: search of species incomplete but presence of supportive environments; ecology of the species consistent with the hypothesis of his presence; the last reliable sighting is older than 10 years compared to the reference date, no recent specific research and no presumption of extinction from that date [vertebrates, invertebrates and plants well studied rhopalocera, grasshoppers, dragonflies This point covers the absence, more difficult by nature to demonstrate than presence. This status is based on one or more of the following criteria: intensive but unsuccessful targeted research; lack of adequate environments; unobserved species while its presence is easily detected; unlikely presence for historical or biogeographical reasons.
|Published (Last):||15 March 2009|
|PDF File Size:||15.13 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||6.66 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Mammuthus meridionalis , or the southern mammoth , is an extinct species of mammoth native to Europe and Central Asia from the Gelasian stage of the Early Pleistocene , living from 2.
The taxonomy of extinct elephants was complicated by the early 20th century, and in , Henry Fairfield Osborn 's posthumous monograph on the Proboscidea was published, wherein he used various taxon names that had previously been proposed for mammoth species, including replacing Mammuthus with Mammonteus , as he believed the former name to be invalidly published. The earliest known members of Proboscidea, the clade which contains modern elephants, existed about 55 million years ago around the Tethys Sea.
The closest known relatives of the Proboscidea are the sirenians dugongs and manatees and the hyraxes an order of small, herbivorous mammals. The family Elephantidae existed six million years ago in Africa and includes the modern elephants and the mammoths.
Among many now extinct clades, the mastodon Mammut is only a distant relative of the mammoths, and part of the separate family Mammutidae , which diverged 25 million years before the mammoths evolved. Loxodonta African elephants. Since many remains of each species of mammoth are known from several localities, it is possible to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus through morphological studies.
Mammoth species can be identified from the number of enamel ridges or lamellar plates on their molars: primitive species had few ridges, and the number increased gradually as new species evolved to feed on more abrasive food items. The crowns of the teeth became deeper in height and the skulls became taller to accommodate this. At the same time, the skulls became shorter from front to back to minimise the weight of the head.
The first known members of the genus Mammuthus are the African species M. The former is thought to be the ancestor of later forms. The earliest European mammoth has been named M. Only its molars are known, which show that it had 8—10 enamel ridges. A population evolved 12—14 ridges, splitting off from and replacing the earlier type, becoming M.
In turn, this species was replaced by the steppe mammoth M. Steppe mammoths replaced southern mammoths in Europe in a diachronous mosaic pattern between 1 and 0. A study of mammoth molars confirmed that M. Another estimate gives a shoulder height of 3. Its molars had low crowns and a small number of thick enamel ridges, adapted to a woodland diet of leaves and shrubs; this indicates it lived on a relatively warm climate, which makes it more probable that it lacked dense fur.
Fossilized plants found with the remains show that M. Deciduous mixed wood provided its habitat and food, which consisted mostly of tree-browse: oak , ash , beech and other familiar European trees, as well as some that are now exotic to the region, such as hemlock , wing nut and hickory. Further east, discoveries at Ubeidiya Israel and Dmanisi Georgia show the early mammoth living in a partially open habitat with grassy areas, though subsisting on scattered trees and shrubs.
The microscopic scratches and pits in the dental enamel on the fossils of M. Media related to Mammuthus meridionalis at Wikimedia Commons.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mammuthus meridionalis Temporal range: 2. Nesti , Percy, M. Proboscidea: A monograph of the discovery, evolution, migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world.
New York: J. Pierpont Morgan Fund. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. April Quaternary International. October Bibcode : QuInt. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica.
Bibcode : Sci Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetia. Mammoths: giants of the ice age. Frances Lincoln LTD. Lister, A. Mammoths - Giants of the Ice Age 3 ed. London: Frances Lincoln. Paleontology portal.
Categories : Pleistocene mammals of Asia Prehistoric elephants Pleistocene proboscideans. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Contribute Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file.
Elephas Asian elephants.
Mammuthus meridionalis (Nesti, 1825)
Name: Mammuthus meridionalis Phonetic: Mam-mu-fus me-rid-e-on-a-lis. Synonyms: Archidiskodon meridionalis, Mammuthus gromovi, Mammuthus meridionalis vestinus, Mammuthus meridionalis voigtstedtensis. Species: M. Diet: Herbivore. Known locations: Eurasia. Time period: Late Pliocene to Early Pliestocene.