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Join , subscribers and get a daily digest of news, geek trivia, and our feature articles. True to the Unix philosophy, each command does one thing and does it well. Midnight Commander, a full-featured file manager for the Linux terminal, acts as a powerful front end to all these commands. The ls command lists the files in a directory. By default, ls lists files in the current directory.

You can also list files recursively — that is, list all files in directories inside the current directory — with ls -R. The cd command changes to another directory. The rm command removes files. The rmdir command removes an empty directory. This is a dangerous command that could easily delete a lot of important files, so be careful when using it.

The mv command moves a file to a new location. Like with other commands, you can include full paths to move files to or from other directories. The cp command works the same way as the mv command, except it copies the original files instead of moving them. You can also do a recursive copy with cp -r. This copies a directory and all files inside it to a new location. The mkdir command makes a new directory.

The ln command creates links. The most commonly used type of link is probably the symbolic link, which you can create with ln -s. Check out our article on symbolic links for more information.

Linux file permissions can be a bit complicated. Check out our guide to Linux file permissions for more in-depth information. The touch command creates an empty file.

Midnight Commander is one of many fully featured file managers you can use from the Linux terminal. Use the arrow keys to select files and the Tab key to switch between panes. Press Alt-1 to see the help screen or Alt-2 to see the menu. The Best Tech Newsletter Anywhere. Join , subscribers and get a daily digest of news, comics, trivia, reviews, and more.

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When downloading files, particularly installation files from websites, it is a good idea to verify that the download is valid. A website will often display a hash value for each file so that you can make sure the download completed correctly. In this article, we will be discussing the md5sum tool that you can use to validate the download. Two other utilities, shasum and shasum, work the same way as md5sum. The md5sum command prints a character bit checksum of the given file, using the MD5 algorithm. Following is the command syntax of this command line tool:. Note: We'll be using three files named file1.

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Linux md5sum Command Explained For Beginners (5 Examples)

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