We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. To the Editor : Several of the research studies in the medical field require the assessment of the socioeconomic status SES , cutting across various specialties. A revision for the widely used Kuppuswamy scale was made available through the journal earlier [ 1 ]. An inherent predicament with any print format update of an income scale is that inflation is a dynamic process. With passage of time, any income categories given in a printed text format start losing their validity and may soon lead to errors in classification of the SES.
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One of the scales widely used and quoted even today is the one developed by Kuppuswamy. The Kuppuswamy scale in its various forms has held steady over three decades now and is still widely used as a measure of socioeconomic status in the urban population. However, it is important to discuss the applicability in the changed modern scenario. Several scales have been developed and reported in publications that seek to assess SES of families in specific circumstances, such as in urban population or in rural population.
The original scale was published in the year , and incorporated three characteristics to be assessed and scored: Education level of the head of family HOF , occupation of the HOF, and income per month.
A point to be noted is that the Kuppuswamy scale attempts to measure the SES of an individual in a urban community. The Kuppuswamy scale has now been around for more than 3 decades. However, there may be certain shortcomings in its use and application that need to be discussed. Improvement in these possible lacunae is a priority area considering the wide use of the scale in published literature and in family health advisory postings in urban areas of medical undergraduate students.
The discussion is presented point-wise. In certain family situations it may be difficult to classify one individual as the HOF. Such difficulties arise if the family has one or more elderly members who may be retired or unemployed. It may be difficult for researchers in field settings to arrive at accurate identification of the HOF. Second important point is that the education status of the identified HOF is being taken as a surrogate measure for the entire family's education level.
While this may have been reliable enough in the times gone by, it is no more reliably applicable in today's scenario. India is in a time of dynamic demographic transitions. With increased opportunities and support, it is now common to find that in a family having an uneducated HOF, children or grandchildren have received tertiary level education or professional education. If the eldest member of the family is identified as HOF, the chances of low score in education subscale increase as the literacy rate in India earlier was much lower than what it is now.
There has been a remarkable opening up of the Indian economy in the past years. While it may still have been possible to grade the smaller number of possible occupational profiles as was true earlier, but now it is very difficult to accurately grade each and every occupation and especially difficult to slot it into one of the assigned scores in the Kuppuswamy classification for occupation.
The classes of score possible for occupation may now prove too limited considering the myriad varieties of occupations in the current society. The category 3 of the occupation subscale creates much confusion as it is not given a name and neither is it defined clearly. Only examples of the job profiles fitting the category are given which creates scope for ambiguity and subjectivity.
An example may be an unskilled worker doing a simple occupation, but who may have lot of social standing owing to unpaid social work. The Kuppuswamy scale requires directly asking the respondent about the income earned.
In our experience, this proves to be a very tricky subject to elicit information about. Invariably it leads to nonresponses or responses that seem more likely to be underreported figures. Even Kuppuswamy had mentioned this as a possible shortcoming. The regular monthly or annual income may not be a true reflection of the family's economic standing. The past economic conditions of the family can impact their present and future well-being too. The physical assets possessed by the family such as number of residential properties, number of commercial properties, extent of agricultural land holdings, investments such as gold or fixed deposits, and assets that may be regarded as investment such as vehicles, durable consumer goods, etc.
The Kuppuswamy scale in its various forms has held stead over 3 decades now and is still widely used as a measure of socioeconomic status in the urban population. Despite best efforts, we could not find any recent study on validation of the Kuppuswamy scale in the present scenario. In the absence of a universally accepted available alternative, it may be perforce necessary to keep on using the Kuppuswamy scale; but discussion on its merits and demerits in the current scenario is important, especially for the health professionals and others new to the use of measures of socioeconomic conditions of a family.
Read article at publisher's site DOI : Kumar P , Patra S. Sharma R. Indian Pediatr , 54 10 , 01 Oct Cited by 7 articles PMID: Indian J Pediatr , 84 1 , 05 Sep Cited by 5 articles PMID: Lahariya C. Indian J Pediatr , 84 1 , 29 Oct Cited by: 0 articles PMID: To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.
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Free full text. J Family Med Prim Care. PMID: Rahul Sharma and Narinder K. Narinder K. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to:. Keywords: Health care economics, kuppuswamy's scale, socioeconomic status. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared.
Kuppuswamy B. Manual of socio economic status scale urban Delhi: Manasayan; Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale - revision for and formula for real-time updating. Indian J Pediatr. Online interactive calculator for real-time update of the income subscale of Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale. Mishra D, Singh HP. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale - a revision. Economic Survey Delhi: Govt. Ministry of Finance, Govt. Smart citations by scite. The number of the statements may be higher than the number of citations provided by EuropePMC if one paper cites another multiple times or lower if scite has not yet processed some of the citing articles.
Explore citation contexts and check if this article has been supported or contradicted. A study on elder abuse in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. Household food security in an urban slum: Determinants and trends. Socioeconomic status scales-modified Kuppuswamy and Udai Pareekh's scale updated for Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: updating income ranges for the year Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale-updating for This website requires cookies, and the limited processing of your personal data in order to function.
A Critical Appraisal of Kuppuswamy's Socioeconomic Status Scale in the Present Scenario.
The socioeconomic status SES is widely recognized as one of the important factors affecting the health condition of an individual or a family. One of the scales widely used and quoted even today is the one developed by Kuppuswamy. The Kuppuswamy scale in its various forms has held steady over three decades now and is still widely used as a measure of socioeconomic status in the urban population. However, it is important to discuss the applicability in the changed modern scenario.
Provision of an Online Tool for Real-Time Updating of the Kuppuswamy’s Socioeconomic Status Scale
A Critical Appraisal of Kuppuswamy's Socioeconomic Status Scale in the Present Scenario
A new instrument scale for measuring the socioeconomic status of a family: Preliminary study. Indian J Community Med ; An exploratory study on socio economic status scales in a rural and urban setting. J Family Med Prim Care ; Kuppuswamy B.