Glycogenic hepatopathy GH is a rare complication of the poorly controlled diabetes mellitus characterized by the transient liver dysfunction with elevated liver enzymes and associated hepatomegaly caused by the reversible accumulation of excess glycogen in the hepatocytes. It is predominantly seen in patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes mellitus and rarely reported in association with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although it was first observed in the pediatric population, since then, it has been reported in adolescents and adults with or without ketoacidosis. The association of GH with hyperglycemia in diabetes has not been well established.
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Glycogenic hepatopathy is a rare but potentially reversible condition characterized by hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes occurring in poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and often requires a liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. We present the case of a young man who was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis in the setting of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type 1 and was noted to have significantly elevated transaminases that continued to worsen despite appropriate treatment of the diabetic ketoacidosis.
A liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of glycogenic hepatopathy and the patient improved with diabetes control. The aim of this report is to shed light on possible causes of significant elevation of liver enzymes in patients presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis. In addition, we would like to raise awareness about the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of glycogenic hepatopathy and how to differentiate it from other hepatic conditions that have a similar presentation.
Glycogenic hepatopathy presents with abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and transaminasemia as a result of increased glycogen formation and deposition in the setting of excess levels of insulin and glucose. This condition remains poorly recognized among clinicians, which may lead to expensive and unnecessary testing and delaying appropriate management.
In this case report, we reviewed the presentation, evaluation, and management of a patient who developed elevated liver enzymes after initiation of treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. In addition, we present the thought process involved in the differential diagnosis and workup done for our patient leading to the final diagnosis of glycogenic hepatopathy.
A year-old boy was brought to the emergency department by his family for evaluation of abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. His discomfort started one day earlier and was localized to the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. He described a constant pressure unrelated to food intake.
He reported no change in urine or stools and no melena, dysphagia, anorexia, increase in abdominal girth, or change in his weight. He was lethargic and fatigued but had no pruritus, jaundice, night sweats, fever, easy bruising, or bleeding. There was no family history of diabetes mellitus, autoimmune diseases, or liver disorders. His medications included insulin Lantus 22 units at night and insulin Humalog 20 units three times daily before each meal.
He admitted that he had not been consistently compliant with his medications. There was no history of new medication usage. He also denied the use of any over-the-counter medication or alcohol use. There was no recent travel and no sick contact. The jugular venous pressure was not elevated. Examination of the heart and lungs was unremarkable. Abdominal examination revealed mildly distended abdomen with mild tenderness on palpation in the right upper quadrant.
The spleen was not palpable, and there was no evidence of ascites. Skin examination showed no palmar erythema, leg edema, spider angiomata, or evidence of pigmentation. There was a scant presence of axillary and pubic hair. The neurologic examination, including mental status, was normal. The anion gap was calculated at The arterial blood gas showed a pH of 7. Serum albumin was 4. The acetaminophen level was undetectable. His lactate level was 3.
The prothrombin time and partial-thromboplastin time were both normal. The white cell count was 4, per cubic millimeter, with a normal differential count. The hemoglobin was The urinalysis showed evidence of ketones.
A radiograph of the chest showed no abnormal findings. The patient was admitted to the hospital with the impression of diabetic ketoacidosis, most probably due to noncompliance with medications. The patient was started on insulin infusion and intravenous fluid with potassium chloride. There was no evidence of sepsis or other causes that precipitated this event.
He also had elevated liver enzymes and lactic acid with hepatomegaly, with no obvious etiology. He continued to have mild abdominal pain in the right side of the abdomen and his liver enzymes continued to rise significantly.
The lactate level also worsened on the second day before slowly trending to normal range on day 7 Table 1. Given this rise in liver enzymes associated with abdominal pain and hepatomegaly in the setting of type 1 diabetes mellitus, we initiated the workup to evaluate the etiology behind this presentation. We ordered an ultrasound of the liver to evaluate for evidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Also, we sent investigation for iron deposition disorder and for autoimmune workup.
We also tested for viral hepatitis serology, despite the fact that he had no previous history or risk factors for viral hepatitis. The glycated hemoglobin was The antimitochondrial antibody and anti-smooth muscle antibody were negative. Results for the ceruloplasmin serum test were in the normal range. The thyroid function was normal. Alpha-1 antitrypsin level was normal. The gall bladder had normal wall thickness, with no stones or biliary dilatation.
The spleen and kidneys appeared normal. In conclusion, there was no evidence based on our investigation for the common causes of rising liver enzymes. Revising his previous medical history, the patient had several admissions with diabetic ketoacidosis associated with elevated liver enzymes. Also noted, his liver enzymes continued to rise before ultimately trending down around the ninth hospital day. The decision was then made to perform a liver biopsy.
The liver biopsy results showed mild macrovesicular and microvesicular steatosis with mild portal and lobular inflammation. Periodic acid-Schiff staining revealed increased overall intracellular glycogen content with the presence of glycogenated nuclei. The biopsy findings were consistent with glycogenic hepatopathy Figure 1. However, it was later recognized to occur in both adults [ 2 ] and children [ 3 ]. In addition, elevation of lactic acid has been increasingly recognized and reported to occur in glycogenic hepatopathy [ 4 ].
While the pathophysiology of glycogenic hepatopathy or Mauriac syndrome is not fully understood, the most accepted theory is that the presence of insulin and excess glucose activates glycogen synthase phosphatase into activated glycogen synthase, an enzyme required for the conversion of glucosephosphate to glycogen. This activation promotes glycogen formation and storage in the liver and blocks glycogenolysis, increasing hepatic glycogen stores during hyperglycemia.
Insulin is administered as the main treatment for hyperglycemia, driving glycogen synthesis further and inhibiting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, resulting in increasing hepatocyte glycogen stores.
Glycogen overload ultimately leads to hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes [ 5 , 6 ]. Elevated levels of glucose and insulin in prepubertal diabetic patients results in a state of hypercortisolism, which explains the pubertal and growth delays [ 3 , 7 ].
The exact mechanism for lactic acidosis reported in glycogenic hepatopathy is poorly understood [ 4 , 8 ]. It is felt that the reduction in gluconeogenesis in the liver and the resultant reduction in conversion of pyruvate to glucose may drive the anaerobic reaction of pyruvate to lactate.
Therapy with insulin would further reduce gluconeogenesis and increase lactic acid formation, explaining the increase of lactic acidosis observed with early therapy of glycogenic hepatopathy [ 9 ].
In a case series conducted by Torbenson et al. Hepatomegaly was evident by imaging in 9 patients and 6 patients had elevated levels. Steatosis was present in only 2 patients [ 7 ]. The diagnosis of glycogenic hepatopathy is usually supported by the following features: poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, abnormal levels of liver enzymes, and the improvement of the liver enzymes with insulin therapy.
The reversibility of the elevation in liver enzymes with rigorous glucose control usually occurs within 2 to 4 weeks [ 10 ]. Elevated lactic acid may exist with or without evidence of hypoperfusion [ 11 ]. The test to confirm the diagnosis is the liver biopsy. Treatment involves the use of adequate doses of insulin to achieve rigorous glucose control. It is important to differentiate glycogenic hepatopathy from hepatic steatosis and from other inherited glycogen storage disorders Tables 2 and 3.
While hepatic steatosis is more commonly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and could potentially lead to liver cirrhosis, glycogenic hepatopathy is classically seen in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and it is highly unlikely to lead to liver cirrhosis [ 6 , 12 , 13 ].
On further follow-up visits, the patient was more compliant with his medical care and his diabetes was under better control with the surveillance of the endocrinology department. He did not show any further rise in his liver enzymes. With trending down with treatment, the growth indicators including height, weight, and BMI showed gradual improvement Table 4. Our patient fulfills several criteria for glycogenic hepatopathy, including history of poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus and physical findings of hepatomegaly confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography.
In addition, he had elevated liver enzymes and lactic acidosis in the absence of hypoperfusion, both of which responded to insulin therapy and glucose control.
With other common etiologies of liver disease such as infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, or drug-induced etiologies ruled out, the characteristic histological findings noted on the liver biopsy showing the increased intracellular glycogen content and the glycogenated nuclei confirmed the diagnosis.
The reversibility of liver enzymes with intensive insulin therapy, in our case, is particularly important given that it is consistent with the diagnosis and prognosis of this condition. This case reinforces the importance of recognizing the features of glycogenic hepatopathy for proper management.
Glycogen hepatopathy has an excellent prognosis with improved glycemic control. The work was not supported or funded by any drug company. Abboud is the main author. The manuscript has not been published previously, in any language, in whole or in part, and is not currently under consideration elsewhere.
The authors thank Dr. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Young Man with Hepatomegaly: A Case of Glycogenic Hepatopathy
Colleague's E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. Glycogenic hepatopathy is excessive intrahepatic glycogen accumulation.
Glycogenic Hepatopathy: A Rare Hepatic Complication of Poorly Controlled Type 1 DM
Glycogenic hepatopathy is a rare condition that causes significant hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzyme levels in uncontrolled type 1 diabetic patients. It develops due to excessive accumulation of glycogen in the hepatocytes. It is typically reversible with good glycemic control and rarely progresses to mild fibrosis, but not cirrhosis. Hepatomegaly with or without elevated transaminases levels is a common condition in patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus DM. Glycogenic hepatopathy GH is a rare disease that develops due to excessive accumulation of glycogen in the hepatocytes, leading to hepatomegaly and elevated transaminases levels in patients with uncontrolled type 1 DM. Although GH is well-described, it is still underdiagnosed. In this report, we describe the clinical, biochemical, and histopathological features in a Saudi girl with GH.