The Environmental Modification Convention ENMOD , formally the Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques is an international treaty prohibiting the military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects. It opened for signature on 18 May in Geneva and entered into force on 5 October The Convention bans weather warfare , which is the use of weather modification techniques for the purposes of inducing damage or destruction. The Convention on Biological Diversity of would also ban some forms of weather modification or geoengineering. Many states do not regard this as a complete ban on the use of herbicides in warfare, such as Agent Orange , but it does require case-by-case consideration.

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Kuwait 10 Kuwait Furthermore, no treaty relation will arise between the State of Kuwait and Israel. Home Page. Main Menu. Convention on the prohibition of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques.

New York, 10 December Entry into force. Registration : 5 October , No. Status : Signatories : Parties : In application of paragraph 2 of the said resolution, the Secretary-General decided to open the Convention for signature and ratification by States from 18 to 31 May at Geneva, Switzerland.

Subsequently, the Convention was transmitted to the Headquarters of the Organization of the United Nations at New York, where it was open for signature by States until 4 October Declarations and Reservations. Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made upon ratification, accession or succession. Argentina 9. Germany 5. Kuwait New Zealand. Republic of Korea. This reservation refers, in particular, to article V, paragraph 5, of the Convention, and to any similar clause which may replace or supplement this provision in the Convention or in any other arrangement.

So long as this clarification is not made the Government of Turkey will be compelled to in- terpret itself the terms in question and consequently it reserves the right to do so as and when required. Territorial Application. End Note. In the view of the Government of Israel, this Convention is not the proper place for making such political pronouncements.

Moreover, the said declaration cannot in any way affect whatever obligations are binding upon Kuwait, under general international law or under particular conventions. Insofar as concerns the substance of the matter, the Government of Israel will adopt towards the Government of Kuwait an attitude of complete reciprocity. Signatories : Certified true copy United Nations, Treaty Series , vol.

Germany 4 , 5. Netherlands 6. New Zealand 7. Close Window. Declarations and Reservations Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made upon ratification, accession or succession. Germany 5 Germany 5.


U.S. Department of State

Use of environmental modification techniques for hostile purposes does not play a major role in military planning at the present time. Such techniques might be developed in the future, however, and would pose a threat of serious damage unless action was taken to prohibit their use. In July the U. Government renounced the use of climate modification techniques for hostile purposes, even if their development were proved to be feasible in the future. Both the U. Senate and the House of Representatives held hearings, beginning in , and the Senate adopted a resolution in calling for an international agreement "prohibiting the use of any environmental or geophysical modification activity as a weapon of war


Environmental Modification Convention

For the latest from UN Geneva, visit www. This site is no longer updated except for the Disarmament section as we transition to the new site. Entry into force : 5 October , in accordance with its article IX 3. Pursuant to its article VII, the Convention is of unlimited duration. Status : Signatories: 48 16 of the signatories have not yet ratified; States Parties : Depositary : Secretary-General of the United Nations. History : The problem of artificial modification of the environment for military or other hostile purposes was brought to the international agenda in the early s.


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