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Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less Parzan Nalladaru , Dentist can you please give the reference of the articles referred for texts and pictures apart from GRP Browse by Genre Available eBooks Show More. Ravi Ranjan. Delphina Kapoor. Shailly Nimbark. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Rolf frankel Zwichau- Germany functional regulator 4 5. Buccal shields Extension Thickness 2.
Lip pads extension and Tear drop shape Smoothen sulks Lip posture and seal seal 5 mm 15 Lip pads and buccal shields Concomitant action in mandibular retrusion 16 Lingual shields extension Over comes the poor posture of mandibular muscles Different action from activator Action only in step advancement 17 Palatal bow Extension Occlusal rest on maxillary molar Stabilizing action Intermaxillary anchorage 21 Canine loop Extension Guide eruption of canine Intermaxillary anchorage 22 Lower lingual wires Extension Prevent lingual movement of incisors Function activated element in deep bite and retruded anteriors 23 FR 2 Canine loop and labial bow Upper lingual wire 27 Buccal shields in FR 3 Stand away from maxilla but not from mandible 31 Lip pads in FR 3 Larger in size Stands away from alveolar process Expansion of capsule and correction of postural imbalance 32 Palatal bow and occlusal rests Palatal bow not lodged interdentally Additional occlusal rest on lower molar in deep bite 33 Upper lingual wire and lower labial bow Upper wire not touch the anteriors but can be activated to protrude incisors Lower labial bow must touch the incisors 34 FR 4 Lower labial pads and buccal shields 4 occlusal rests upper labial bow Palatal bow 35 Construction of the FR appliance 36 Impression technique Reproduce whole alveolar process and depth of the sulcus Tray selection Adequate base 37 Preparation of the casts Gauge to measure the correct depth of the sulcus Properly carved working models 39 Preparation of the casts seating grooves: Seating grooves are cut in the maxillary model in FR 1 and FR 2 in the permanent dentition 40 Preparation of the casts seating grooves Seating grooves in maxillary model for permanent dentition Notching in the deciduous dentition 41 Preparation of the casts Sulcus trimming and position of lower lip pads Extension of lower lip pads 12 mm 42 Preparation of the casts wax relief: Wax padding under the buccal shield to allow for dentoalveolar expansion Maximum thickness of wax padding under buccal shield 43 Wire fabrication Labial bow 0.
Wire fabrication Palatal bow Canine loop 45 Wire fabrication Correct position of lip pads and lingual shields and wires Lo-la 0. Wire fabrication Single piece 3 separate pieces Lingual wires 0. Wire fabrication Future splitting of buccal shield with use of metal sheet 49 Wire fabrication — FR 2 Palatal bow and upper lingual bow 0. Wire fabrication - FR 3 Bite registration - most comfortable retruded position 51 Preparation of modelsFR 3 Trimming of maxillary casts 52 Wax relief — FR 3 53 Wire fabrication - FR 3 Correct position of protrusion and palatal bow 55 Wire fabrication - FR 3 Occlusal rest below palatal bow Mandibular labial bow 56 Initial phase Appliance delivery Check appliance fit Overextension of shields Palpate face to to check for sharp edges 60 Initial phase Wearing the appliance Success of treatment — lip seal Emphasis on lip exercises Duration of wear Ist week — hrs in afternoon only 2nd week — hrs 3 — 4 months — full time wear 61 Active phase Check after every 4 weeks Mucosal irritation Stability of appliance Impingement of cross over wires Appliance adjustments Canine loop -occlusally Molar rests — gingivally 62 Active phase After 3 months of full time wear Check Expansion Overjet Overbite molar relationship- months Leveling of curve of spee Decrease in mentalis activity 64 Retentive phase Different from fixed appliances Labial and lingual wires can hold altered tooth positions Used as retainer in pts where the training effect not satisfactory Fixed treatment may be required 2 hrs in afternoon 6 months 6 hrs in night Only night — i year 65 FR in treatment of class II Mandible displaced anteriorly- retractor muscle force —gms Activator-force transmitted to single teeth Bjork : rapid reaction in the dental system TMJ unaffected Major dental changes — Proclination of lower incisors 66 FR in treatment of class II Activator treatment before after 67 FR in treatment of class II Mode of action of activator in the treatment of mandibular retrusion 68 FR in treatment of class II Suspending muscles relax during sleep Mandible drops inferiorly and backwards Proclination of lower anteriors mm advancement initial afternoon wear 69 FR in treatment of class II Post —sup elongation of condyle Remodeling at ramal-corpus junction- elongation of corpus 70 The adjustive function of the ramus 71 FR in the treatment of class 2 Change in position brought by lingual shields Initial bite mm Advancement in small steps for biologic reasons.
FR in the treatment of class 3 Characterized by diminished volume of the superior part of the oro-facial capsule Related to structural and postural imbalance of muscles Lingual volume not to be diminished 75 FR in the treatment of class 3 Expansion of upper oral space Tongue space not diminished 76 FR in the treatment of class 3 Septo premaxillary ligament pull translates upper incisors bodily FR3 promotes max basal bone development and translates maxilla forward Appliance should not be locked in the maxilla by wires 77 FR in the treatment of skeletal open bites Aimed at correcting the poor lip valve mechanism.
Marked activity of temporalis and masseter when lips are closed Acc to Frankel tongue thrust is compensatory 78 Modifications of FR appliance www. Modifications of FR appliance 1. Change in the angulation of cross over wire Strictly horizontal advancement results in incisal movements of the lower wire and shields 83 Change in the angulation of cross over wire 84 Change in the angulation of cross over wire Difficulty in establishing normal lip functions 85 Change in the angulation of cross over wire In cases with step advancement FR to be constructed so that it be parallel to the downward and forward repositioning of the mandible 86 Molars intruded chin translated forward improving profile 87 Bite planes 2.
Shields and screens 3. Construction and working bite 90 Modified Fr with continuous buccolabial shield and palatal acrylic support- haynes ajo To eliminate lip trap No pressure on the gingival dentoalveolar tissues 94 Caused forward and upward rotation of mandible Reduction in mandibular plane angles i.
Comparison of FR with other functional appliances Fr therapy in cleft palate patients keere,welch ajo 9 pts treated with Fr for months To treat collapsed maxilla and cross bite Results Not clinically useful in cleft patients
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