This article will be permanently flagged as inappropriate and made unaccessible to everyone. Are you certain this article is inappropriate? Email Address:. It is a Jain religious epic authored by Tirutakkatevar. It is considered one of the five great Tamil epics according to later Tamil literary tradition, the others being Manimegalai , Silappadikaram , Valayapathi and Kundalakesi.
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Its Jain author is credited with 2, of these quatrains, the rest by his guru and another anonymous author. The epic begins with the story of a treacherous coup, where the king helps his pregnant queen escape in a peacock-shaped air machine but is himself killed.
The queen gives birth to a boy. She hands him over to a loyal servant to raise, becoming a nun herself. He excels in war and erotics, kills his enemies, wins over and marries every pretty girl he meets, then regains the kingdom his father had lost. After enjoying power, sex and begetting many sons with his numerous wives, the epic ends with him renouncing the world and becoming a Jaina ascetic.
The Tamil epic Civakacintamani is probably a compilation of many older, fantasy-filled unreal Tamil folk stories. The poet skillfully couples the martial adventures of the extraordinarily talented superman with graphic sexual descriptions of his affairs,  along with lyrical interludes of his virtues such as kindness, duty, tenderness and affection for all living beings.
Portions of the epic were ceremonially recited by members of the Tamil Jain community in the 19th century. Aiyar studied the epic's manuscripts under oil lamps,  with guidance from Appasami Nayinar — a Jaina community leader, established a critical edition and published the first paper version of the epic in Civaka Cintamani — as it has survived into the modern era — is an epic of 3, stanzas, each stanza of four highly lyrical lines.
According to a Jain tradition, 2 of the quatrains were composed by the teacher and counselor of Thiruthakkadevar, while the rest were anonymously added. The larger Tamil tradition believes that quatrains were composed by Kantiyar, a poetess and inserted into the original.
According to a note in by the colonial-era missionary P Percival, his acquaintances informed him that Thiruthakkadevar, also called Tirudevar, was a learned Jain scholar who lived 2, years ago, and who was acquainted with Akattiyam and Tolkappiyam , the celebrated Tamil grammar works.
His epic, said Percival, was quoted by Tamil grammarians because it was believed to be of "undoubted authority" on Tamil language. Later Tamil literature scholarship places Thiruthakkadevar about 1, years later than Percival's colonial-era note. The story in Civakacintamani , states Kamil Zvelebil, is the story found in the older Sanskrit text Kshattracudamani by Vadibhasinha, which itself was based on Gunabhadra's Uttarapurana.
Therefore, the epic was composed after CE. It is now broadly accepted by scholars that the Civakacintamani epic was composed in the early 10th century on a foundation of the 9th-century Sanskrit originals.
The work contains quatrains and is divided into 13 cantos called illambakams Skt: lambaka. Percival noted that the Jivaka story is also found in the older Sanskrit Jaina text, called Maha Purana and that the Jains did not consider it to be a part of their 18 celebrated Puranas.
The epic begins with the story of a treacherous coup by a minister of the king. The king helps his pregnant queen escape in a peacock-shaped flying machine but is himself killed.
The queen gives birth to a boy as she hid in a remote cremation grounds. She hands over her baby she named Jivaka to a loyal servant to raise, becoming a nun herself. Jivaka the superhero excels in war and erotics, kills his enemies, wins over and marries every beautiful girl he meets, then regains the kingdom his father had lost. After enjoying power, sex and begetting many sons with his numerous wives, the epic ends with Jivaka renouncing the world and converting into a Jaina ascetic.
The epic concludes that all the worldly pleasures Jivaka enjoyed was nothing but illusions distracting him from the path of spiritual salvation. His garlands ripped, the saffron on him was ruined, his chaplet was charred, — because of the enthusiasm of intercourse, her girdles broke, her beautiful anklets cried out, and the honeybees were scared off, as the young couple made love.
The epic is unusual in many respects. Authored by a Jain ascetic, it presents a story that is unlike the generally accepted view of historic Jainism being an "austerely ascetic" religious tradition. Ultimately, the hero converts into a Jain ascetic, yet the epic writer is generally accepted to be a Jaina ascetic.
According to David Shulman, the epic questions the long-held scholarly views of Jainism and the teachings of its most celebrated historic scholars. According to Arathoon, the work stands as a proof of secular outlook of Chola kings during the period.
Though they were Hindus , they encouraged the Jain education and arts. The epic hints of no persecution or violence between the Tamil Shaiva and Jaina community. Its composition, reception, and influence in the Hindu community suggest that the Jain-Hindu relations in the Tamil region were cordial and collaborative at least through the 10th century.
The Tamil epic is notable for the high number of Sanskrit loan words, likely because it is a late medieval text. It is considered one of the five great Tamil epics according to later Tamil literary tradition, the others being Manimegalai , Silappadikaram , Valayapathi and Kundalakesi. It has been admired for its poetic form, appealing story-line, and theological message.
The first copy came from Tamil enthusiast Ramaswami Mutaliyar whom the abbot had introduced to Iyer also spelled Aiyar , and the other came from the monastery's large collection of ancient texts. The palm-leaf manuscripts decay and degrade relatively quickly in the tropical climate of south India, and must be re-copied every few decades or about a century, a step that introduces scribal errors.
The two copies of the manuscripts were different, and one included commentary from the 14th century. Aiyar studied the two versions of the manuscripts under oil lamps. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Civaka Cintamani.
Jain prayers. Ethics of Jainism Sallekhana. Major figures. Major sects. Diwali Mahavir Jayanti Paryushana Samvatsari. Sex in Civaka Cintamani His garlands ripped, the saffron on him was ruined, his chaplet was charred, — because of the enthusiasm of intercourse, her girdles broke, her beautiful anklets cried out, and the honeybees were scared off, as the young couple made love.
However, Eva Wilden states that the Tecikar note has been quoted out of its context, and Tecikar's note was in the context of understanding and interpreting Sutra 7 given the standard Tamil references for grammar and interpretation. A careful reread suggests Tecikar did not mean it that way, states Wilden. According to James Ryan — a professor of Asian Studies and Religion, "the Digambaras, with the rigorously ascetic views, would seem unlikely candidates for the creation of a text of highly erotic character such as the Civacintamani.
John E. Cort ed. State University of New York Press. Sheldon Pollock ed. University of California Press. Ryan University of California, Berkeley. Journal of the American Oriental Society.
Tamil people. Tamil history from Sangam literature. Part of a series on. Ethics Ethics of Jainism Sallekhana. Religion portal.
It is a Jain religious epic authored by Tirutakkatevar. It belongs to the Sangam tradition of Tamil literature , and is considered one of the five great Tamil epics. In its form, it anticipates the Ramayana of Kambar. The story concerns a hero who through his virtue rises to become king, only to renounce his high station and pursue a life of religious merit. A king by the name of Caccantan loses himself in sexual enjoyment with his queen and inadvertently gives control of his kingdom to his corrupt minister Kattiyankaran. Kattiyankaran attacks Caccantan, and before the king dies he sends his now pregnant wife away on a flying peacock machine.