Please note that this product is not available for purchase from Bloomsbury. D iscourse Analysis: An Introduction is a comprehensive, accessible introduction to discourse analysis. In a series of nine chapters the book examines different approaches to discourse, looking at discourse and society, discourse and pragmatics, discourse and genre, discourse and conversation, discourse grammar, corpus-based approaches to discourse and critical discourse analysis. The final chapter presents a practical approach to doing discourse analysis. The book includes the following features: - Chapter summaries outlining the key areas covered.
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All of them are the basic building blocks of successful communication. It analyzes and investigates both spoken and written interactions. Paltridge discusses Discourse Analysis from pragmatic point of view. The Discourse Structure Of Text Discourse Analysts are interested in how people knit into a structure what they intend to convey to others in a conversation or in a piece of writing. The cultural context remains the most important aspect that needs attention of analysts, researchers and critics.
It revolves around the knowledge of speakers as to how to respond to different speech acts as faced during day to day situations. Communicative competence consists of four components i. Discursive Competence Discursive competence is not only language related and text level knowledge but also includes complex factors beyond text which are required for useful communication.
Discursive competence draws together the notion of textual competence generic competence and social competence. Different Views of Discourse Analysis It is the analysis of functional language i. Paltridge has discussed different uses of discourse analysis i. The first view only concentrates on language features of text while the second one talks about the text in social and cultural settings. Paltridge has focused more on discourse analysis from the second point of view.
Both of these aspects can hardly be ignored in a realistic discourse analysis. A speaker can construct multi identities in a single stretch of discourse. For example, when a speaker, in an interview, tells that his son goes to Chicago University, he establishes his identity of being a father and a husband.
In the same very interview if he discloses it to the audience that he is a high ranking officer in the Army, he constructs his second identity of being an army office. It includes the way we dress, the way we act and interact influences. Discourse And Performance Sometimes our discourse not only shows the intentions and identities, it actually performs the intended functions.
So, this way they are in an intertextual relationship with other texts. Casablanca movie in which different genre such as adventure patriotic war propaganda are mixed up. The differences are as under:- a.
Grammatical Intricacy and Spoken Discourse Researchers have shown that speech as well as writing is grammatically complex and different from each other. Lexical Density in Spoken and Written Discourse Discourse analysts like Halliday maintain that written discourse is more lexically dense than the spoken form.
It used thicker and comparatively difficult lexicon to convey the meaning. Nominalization In Written And Spoken Discourse Nominalization refers to the process of forming nouns from other word class than nouns. It occurs where actions and events are presented as nouns rather than verbs. In written discourse the process of nominalization takes place on higher level while in spoken discourse there is low level of nominalization.
Explicitness in writing and speech depends on the purpose of the text as well as listeners and readers. The spoken genre, such as academic lectures, is decontextualized. Repetition Hesitation and Redundancy in Spoken Discourse Spoken discourse being produced spontaneously and without any preplanning, contains abundant repetition hesitation and redundancy because it is produced in real time and it contains pauses and fillers.
Further she talks about social and gender identities. The notions of gender and identity are thoroughly discussed as important topics in the area of discourse and society. Discourse Communities and Speech Communities Discourse community is a group of people who work or live together. Members of discourse community have shared goals, values and beliefs. The term refers to people who not only use the same language but also have the opportunity to interact with each other, from socio-linguistic point of view.
However, Paltridge says that it is not only the language that defines speech community but also we need to keep in mind various factors like society, geography, culture, politics and ethnicity. They use the term to avoid disclosing the fact that they have a girl friend or who their girl friend is.
Discourse and Gender Earlier works have talked about discourse and gender in terms of biological category of sex but the present research talks in relation to the socially constructed category of gender. Paltridge also agrees the later view. Then she talks of the two approaches namely Dominance Approach and the Difference or Cultural Approach.
The cultural approach believes that boys and girls live in different sub-cultures in the way that people from different social and ethnic backgrounds might be described as being part of different sub cultures.
Resultantly boys and girls learn different ways of using the spoken discourse. It includes the notion of desire as we have discussed that gender is socially constructed but sexual desires are not constructed.
Discourse and Identity Paltridge talks about two views of language and identity. The variation is perspective looks at the relationship between social variables in terms of variation in the use of linguistic variables.
However, post structural perspective on language and identity focuses on this view that identity is constructed through discourse. Identity and Written Academic Discourse Identity is even constructed in our academic writing as in spoken or other written discourse. Discourse and Ideology. Texts are neither ideology free nor objective. A spoken or written genre is never created without an objective. There are a number of ways in which ideology might be extracted from a text.
This may include tracing underlying ideology from linguistic features of a text unpacking ideological presupposition underlying the texts. Central Idea of the Chapter. This section shows that both pragmatics and discourse analysis share an interest in the relationship between language and context and how language is used to perform different speech acts. The chapter begins by defining pragmatics i. Language, Context and Discourse.
Use of Language in context is very important in discourse analysis. Same language carries different meaning in different context. So, what determines the meanings of discourse is the use of discourse in context. However, there are other factors which also play very important role like physical, social contexts and the mental world and roles of people involved in the interactions. Speech Acts and Discourse.
Austin argued that there are three kinds of acts which occur with everything we say. These are locutionary act, the illocutionary act and perlocutionary act. The Co-operative Principle and discourse.
Grice based his co- operative principle on four sub- principles. Quality means, people should only say what they believe to be true and accurate without any addition to the meaning from them. Quantity means that the message being conveyed by the discourse should be comprehensive and holistic without any loopholes and confusions in it. Relation refers to the fact that our discourse needs to be in harmony to the context and should have relevance to the surroundings.
If not so, the entire message may not be communicated in its true letter and spirit. Flouting the Co-operative Principle. The co-operative principle helps the producers of discourse convey their information effectively. This principle is followed to a great extent but the intentions behind the production of discourse do matter.
For example, the principle of quality wants the producers of discourse to say what they want to be true. This violation of the co- operative principle is best done in the diplomatic circle of the world. Cross - Cultural Pragmatics and Discourse. In the global world of today the cross-cultural pragmatics is very important. When people say something, it carries different meanings in different culture. This is called cross-cultural pragmatics.
For example, once when I was teaching my Saudi students two years back, I wanted them to finish their assignment quickly. I snapped my fingers to tell them to be quick. There are two key notions in the area of cross- cultural pragmatics i-e pragmalinguistics the study of more linguistic end of pragmatics and sociolinguistics sociopragmatics refers to specific local conditions of language use.
Conversational Implicature and Discourse. According to Thomas, an implicature is generated intentionally by the speaker to make a listener do something which he may fail to understand. However, a listener in this case may not be able to understand that the speaker wants him to pick up the chalks. Inference, on the other hand, is produced by the hearer on the basis of certain evidence and may not in face be the same as what speakers intends.
Politeness, Face and Discourse. Politeness and face are two important factors for discourse analysis. Lakoff introduced three maxims of politeness. Face and Politeness across Cultures. Face and politeness varies from culture to culture.
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Discourse Analysis: An Introduction
Discourse Analysis : An Introduction. Brian Paltridge. This is the new edition of Discourse Analysis: An Introduction , an accessible and widely-used introduction to the analysis of discourse. In its 10 chapters the book examines different approaches to discourse, looking at discourse and society, discourse and pragmatics, discourse and genre, discourse and conversation, discourse grammar, corpus-based approaches to discourse and critical discourse analysis. The book includes the following features: -A full companion website, featuring student and lecturer resources -A new chapter on multimodal discourse analysis -Chapter summaries outlining the key areas covered -Updated examples drawn from film, television, the media and everyday life -Explanations of technical terms in each chapter -Discussion tasks and data analysis projects at the end of each chapter -Student exercises and answer keys for each chapter-Suggestions for further reading This engagingly written introduction to discourse analysis is essential for students encountering discourse analysis for the first time, whether at undergraduate or postgraduate level. It should be on every reading list. Answers to the Exercises.