The number of cases is likely to remain high until turnout at least, and may increase when the spring-calving season increases, particularly in higher yielding herds. Like most metabolic diseases it is important to remember that for every cow that shows clinical signs, there will be several more which are affected sub-clinically. Acidosis is said to occur when the pH of the rumen falls to less than 5. In many cases the pH can fall even lower. The fall in pH has two effects. Firstly, the rumen stops moving, becoming atonic.
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Simple indigestion is a minor disturbance in ruminant GI function that occurs most commonly in cattle and rarely in sheep and goats. Simple indigestion is a diagnosis of exclusion and is typically related to an abrupt change in the quality or quantity of the diet.
Almost any dietary factor that can alter the intraruminal environment can cause simple indigestion. The disease is common in hand-fed dairy and beef cattle because of variability in the quality and quantity of their feed.
Dairy cattle may suddenly eat excessive quantities of highly palatable feeds such as corn or grass silage; beef cattle may eat excessive quantities of relatively indigestible, poor-quality roughage during winter. During drought, cattle and sheep may be forced to eat large quantities of poor-quality straw, bedding, or grain. Simple indigestion can result from suddenly changing the feed, using spoiled or frozen feeds, introducing urea to a ration, turning cattle onto a lush cereal grain pasture, or introducing feedlot cattle to a high-level grain ration.
Simple indigestion is usually associated with a sudden change in the pH of the ruminal contents, such as a decrease in ruminal pH due to rapid fermentation of ingested carbohydrates or an increase in ruminal pH due to forestomach hypomotility and putrefaction of ingested feed. It can also result from accumulation of excessive quantities of relatively indigestible feed that may physically impair rumen function. Multiple animals are usually simultaneously affected because simple indigestion has a nutritional basis, although the severity of the clinical signs can vary among animals.
Clinical signs depend on the type of animal affected and cause of the disorder. Overfeeding of silage causes anorexia and a moderate drop in milk production in dairy cattle. The rumen is usually full, firm, and doughy; primary contractions are decreased in rate or absent, but secondary contractions may be present although usually decreased in strength. Temperature, pulse, and respiration are normal. The feces are normal to firm in consistency but reduced in amount. Recovery usually is spontaneous within 24—48 hr.
Simple indigestion due to excessive feeding of grain results in anorexia and ruminal hypomotility to atony stasis. The rumen is not necessarily full and may contain excessive fluid. The feces are usually soft to watery and foul smelling. The mechanism for diarrhea formation is uncertain but is most likely due to increased luminal osmolality as a result of the rapid degradation of ingested carbohydrates.
The affected animal is bright and alert and usually begins to eat within 24 hr. A more severe digestive upset due to excessive feeding of grain is described as grain overload see Grain Overload in Ruminants. A diagnosis of simple indigestion is based on a history of an abrupt change in the nature or amount of the diet, multiple animals being affected, and most importantly the exclusion of other causes of forestomach dysfunction.
The systemic reaction and painful responses to deep palpation of the xiphoid in traumatic reticuloperitonitis are not seen. The history and the absence of ketonuria help eliminate clinical ketosis from consideration. The possibility of left displaced abomasum usually can be eliminated by simultaneous percussion and auscultation. Vagal indigestion, abomasal volvulus, and cecocolic volvulus become more readily detectable as they progress.
Treatment is aimed at correcting the suspected dietary factors. Spontaneous recovery is usual when animals are fed a typical ruminant diet. Purported rumenatorics eg, nux vomica, ginger, tartar emetic, parasympathomimetics are not recommended as ancillary treatments. If too much urea see Nonprotein Nitrogen Poisoning or protein has been ingested, vinegar acetic acid may be administered PO to return rumen pH to the normal range.
If the number or activity of ruminal microbes is reduced, administration of 4—8 L of ruminal fluid from a healthy cow will help. See also Ruminal Fluid Transfer.
Oral or intravenous electrolyte solutions may be needed to correct electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, particularly in dehydrated cattle. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Veterinary Manual was first published in as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues in the online and mobile app versions today.
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In medicine , atony or atonia is a condition in which a muscle has lost its strength. It is frequently associated with the conditions atonic seizure , atonic colon , uterine atony , gastrointestinal atony occurs postoperatively and choreatic atonia. Atony can also refer to the paralyzed or extremely relaxed state of skeletal muscles in rapid eye movement sleep REM sleep in most warm-blooded animals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Loss of muscular strength. This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Simple Indigestion in Ruminants
Experimental ammonia poisoning in cattle fed extruded or prilled urea: clinical findings. Twelve yearling Girolando, rumen-fistulated steers never fed with urea before, were distributed randomly in 2 groups of 6 animals each. Both groups were administered intraruminally a single dose 0. The clinical picture was followed for the next min. Besides the classic signs the present study found 3 new additional sign: dehydration, hypothermia and ingurgitated episcleral veins. Convulsion, considered the definite sign, was seen in 5 out of 6 animals from both groups. One steer G1 had only fasciculation, while another G2 developed typical clinical signs, but not convulsion, and recovered spontaneously without treatment.