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Archifecture, in Northern Luzon, St. Louis University Baguio City Former instructor ! No part of this book ma'f be reproduced in any manneJ without permission of the publisher. Box , Manila Dedicated to all future Architects and Engineers The hope for a functional, comfortable and convenient designs for better living. Fermin 0. Special thanks are also acknowledged to the artists who contributed in making the drawings notably, Clamor C.
Louis University, Companies or of materials a!! To Mr. Luis V. Francisco C. Ma6csi, Teresita G. Espinoza, Eduardo C. Villanueva and Enrico P. Gomez for their untiring cooperation in preparing the manuscripts typewritten by Thelma T. Viilareal in computerized typesetting. To the many students of architecture whose curiosity about and interestin the Building Materials and its realization in book form have been a source of inspiration.
In the many years of teaching the subject of building materials and in the experience of the author in actual practice, it was found out that there is a need to compile and arrange these building materials in such a way that the topic is discussed with an accompanying illustra- tions, brief specifications and labelings for easy comprehension. This book discusses the properties of building materials, their application and articulation, system of construction, methods for specifying and their character in use.
It is arranged in such a manner that the reader is provided with adequate knowledge on the characteristic uses Of building materials. It also equips the reader with sufficient skill in the selection of and specification of building materials. With the new curriculum revised by the Ministry of Education with the United Architects of the Philippines, the syllabus of instruction has been changed to include practically all the ma- terials involved in the building construction field.
This book is arranged in such a manner as to introduce to the reader the qualities of wood, concrete, stone, steel, plastic, bituminous materials and others. After the reader is equipped with these knowledge, the author arranged the chapters in such a way as to place the materials in its proper order as flooring materials whether wood or concrete, walling materials for use in interiors and exteriors, and ceiling materials and roofing materials.
Another important topic included is the chapter on building protection which include among others the waterproofing, fijtproofing, fireproofing, burglar proofing and many other protections which is common to buildings especially when it is already existing.. At the end of the chapter is also included the summarized form of a bill of materials and specifications which is commonly encountered in the.
Four parts of limestone to one part clay are the basic ingredients. These are mixed, burned. Portland cement is sold either in cement bags of 40 kilos weight or in BULK into cement trucks. White Portlahd Cement Same materials as normal portland except in color. The manufacturing process is con- trolled to produce a pure white, non-staining cement.
It is used primarily for architectural purposes such as curtain wall and facing panels, decorative concrete stucco and tile grout, or wherever white or colored concrete or mortar is specifted.
Masonry Cement Has been specially designed to produce better mortar than that made with normal port- land cement or with a lime-cement combination. The mortar made with this cement has particularly good plasticity and workability, good adhesion and bond.
Air-entraining Portland Cement Small amounts of certain air-entraining agents are added to the clinker and ground with it to produce air entraining cements, effective use for resistance to severe frost. It must be slow setting andre- sistant to high temperatures and pressures. Waterproofed Portland Cement Normally proauced by adding a small amount of stearate, usually calcium or aluminum to the cement clinker during the final grinding. Aggregates used are sand, gravel crushed stone, cinder, crushed furnace slag, bumed clay, expanded vermiculite, and perlite.
One part cement is to two parts sand plus four parts gravel. The designing of concrete mixtures is based primarily on the water-cement ratio theory, which states that the strength of concrete is inversely proportional to the amount of water used per unit 1b of cement. This means that if. Compressive strength of concrete for various water-cement ratios Water cement ratio lb. A standard slump cc;me is 12 inches high 0.
When the cone has been filled and leveled off, it is lifted carefully and the amount of slump is measured. SPecimens are usually cylindrical with a length equal to twice the diameter. Standard size. Filling is done the sameway as the slump test but taken out from the mold in 24 hours. It is then sent to a compression testing laboratory, by marking the cylinder while still wet. Some compressive stresses are 2, psi, 2, psl, 3, psi. Island cement 6. Filipinas cement 2.
Continental cement 7. Pacific cement 3. Hi-cement 8. Fortune cement 4. Union cement 9. Republic cement 5. Rizal cement Prime White cement 2. Keene 3. Trinity 4. These ma- terials are known as concrete additives and may be used for one of the following reasons: 1.
To speed up the i ni 1 ial set of concrete. Toretard the initial set. To make the concrete more resistant to deterioration due to repeated freezing and thawing cycles. To prevent bleeding of watet to the sur:face of concrete. To improve the workability of the mix. To improve the hardness or denseness ot the concrete surface. To render the concrete more water tight. To improve the bond between two concrete surfaces. To inhibit the set of cement oaste. To produce a colored surface.
To produce a nOt tskid sur:face. To prevent the evaporation ot water from thP. To help develop all the potenti ai strEngth of a given water -cement paste. To decrease the weight of concrete per cubic foot.
Such a material may be added to the mix to increase the rate of early-strength development for several reasons. For example, this will allow earlier removal of forms and in some cases reduce the whole curing period. In hot weather hydration is accelerated by the heat, thus cutting down the time avail-. High temperatures, low humidity and wind cause rapid evaporation of water from the mix during summer.
This drying of the con- crete leads to cracking and crazing of the surtace. An initial set retarder will hold back the process, leaving more water for workability and allowing concrete to be finished and. A retarder is usually used in bridge construction, since girders or beams are designed with a camber and will be deflected as the load of the bridge deck is applied.
The initial pours may be partially set before paving of the bridge deck is complete if a retarderis not used. As fur- ther deflection takes place, this concrete being no longer plastic.
It is also important to use a retarder in casting prestressed concrete. Since prestress beds are usually long, up to ft. It is desirable to keep the concrete plastic until vibrating is completed to ensure a good bond between concrete and prestressed steel along the entire length of the bed.
Retarders are also helpful for concrete that has to be hauled long distances in transit mix trucks, to ensure that it reaches its destination in a plastic and placeable condition. As a result water does not reach some of the particles and some are only partialiy hydrated. Sometimes only 50 percent of the cement is hydrated.
Water trapped within these clumps later bleeds to the surface of the concrete, because of the weight of the other materials.
The voids left by the forcing out of the water later become passages through which water can penetrate the concrete. A cement dispersal agent such as calcium lignosulfonate causes cement particles to sepa- rate by imparting like electrostatic charges to them.
This condition worsens with time, finally resulting in the destruction of the surtace. Chemical hardeners-liquids containing silicoflourides or fluosilicates and ting agent which reduces the surface tension of the liquid and allows it to penetrate the pores of the concrete more easily.
The silicoflourides or fluosilicates combine chemically with the free lime and calcium carbonate which are present in the con- crete. Fine metallic aggregate -are specially processed and graded iron par which are dry-mixed with portland cement, spread evenly over the surface of freshly ftoated concrete, and worked into the surface by floating.
The result is a hard, tough topping which is highly resistant to wear and less brittle than normal concrete. More water than is actually required for the hydration of the cement must be used in any given concrete mix in order to give it placeability.
George Salvan Architectural Building Materials