Authors Prof. Peter Bonfig Dipl. Joost Hartwig ina Planungsgesellschaft mbH, Darmstadt. Hermann Klos Holzmanufaktur Rottweil Prof.

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Authors Prof. Peter Bonfig Dipl. Joost Hartwig ina Planungsgesellschaft mbH, Darmstadt. Hermann Klos Holzmanufaktur Rottweil Prof. Ulrich Sieberath, Dipl. FH Wolfgang Jehl, Dipl. KG, Munich www. This work is subject to copyright.

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A building envelope is a boundary between inside and out; it has protective and regulatory functions and allows for the exchange of energy solar radiation, heat , light and air.

This occurs mainly through openings as they regulate other interface functions such as access. In this sense, they are of great social significance. They both separate and connect the private and the public. It is precisely these multifunctional structural elements and components in and around building openings that are addressed in this book. In , While openings were traditionally kept fairly small mainly for structural and energy conservation reasons, very large openings are now possible, e.

How can effective. At the same time, the disciplines involved in planning and construction are becoming more specialised, contractual regulation is becoming more important and various building certification. Changing usage, which can be expected in any new building, means that building openings often have to be redesigned, reduced, extended, closed up or created completely anew.

An adaptive building envelope uses self-regulating processes to dynamically change its permeability [1]. This book focuses on structural components through which the protective envelope opens or can be opened. The functions of adjustable openings Building openings fulfil many functions that make partly contradictory demands Fig. Primary functions.

One specific example in this context are large openings that break up the building envelope and blend inside and outside into a single space with no barriers in pleasant weather when the protective functions are not required. Interiors can become loggias, roof areas or airy. This creates a spatial continuum between the interior and exterior and offers new possibilities for usage and experiences.

In temperate climates with very different seasons, use of such openings is usually restricted to the summer months. Another elementary functional requirement is enabling the bringing in of objects of all kinds. In this case, the frequency of such deliveries e. The goal here is good interior air quality, which is determined by the composition of the air intake outside air and the proportion of gases and compounds resulting from usage and the space itself [2].

These particles may include soot particles and dust from industry and transport as well as organic particles or microorganisms such as pollen, fungal spores etc. The position and form of adjustable openings in the building envelope are important in assuring an efficient exchange of air. For economic reasons it may be advisable to combine as many as possible of the primary functions mentioned in a single system.

Special cases, temporary With access to exterior surfaces Without access to exterior surfaces Regular use. When the elements are open, the space gains the quality of an outdoor area. The required regulation or control is central or decentralised. The time factor of usage Whether or not certain protective functions e. Openings for continuous ventilation in contrast, especially those for cooling at night, require extra protection from the weather driving rain or wind , break-ins and insects, and, in a noisy environment, additional sound insulation.

Openings used for ingress and egress also require protection from rain and wind. The usual solutions are additional structures such as porches and canopies. Temporary elements e. If the element is transparent or translucent, it can also be used during the day. Wooden structural elements require maintenance and the renewal of protective coatings. Meeting this requirement can also offer an opportunity to combine openings with ventilation functions. Performance profiles. Various strategies can be used to implement a performance profile and are outlined below.

To understand the many possible solutions available it can be advisable to consider the envelope separately Fig. Planning in the envelope surface area. Specific planar structural components in the envelope have various functions. Usually however, more or less specialised structural components e.

Planning perpendicular to the envelope surface area. Individual elements or the entire structure must be moveable to allow for ventilation. Vertical zoning in multistorey buildings. In multistorey buildings, floor-to-ceiling facade openings can be divided into three different vertical zones per storey in terms of their essential functional aspects Fig.

Higher storey users often want glazed parapets to provide visual support in the form of a structural element or printing on panes of glass. Temporary thermal insulation e. The most important aspects of all three zones can be summarised as follows: 1. The chapter concludes with other added or integrated elements such as motors, sensors and the like. During the manufacturing process, glass can also be dyed, although this changes its optical qualities such as its light transmission level.

Since it is a purely mineral material, glass is not flammable and has no predefined melting point. Increasing its temperature further reduces its viscosity. Glass is very resistant to alkaline solutions and acids apart from hydrofluoric acid.

It has a fairly hard surface, so it is more durable and robust than alternative transparent materials, including plastics such as polycarbonate PC , polymethylmethacrylate PMMA or ethylene tetrafluorethylene ETFE.

Like metal, glass of and above a certain thickness is absolutely gas-tight. Wired glass. Wired glass is a special cast glass with an embedded wire netting.

If it breaks, shards stick to its wire netting. The maximum size of a pane of wired glass is typically 3, mm long and 1, mm wide with a nominal thickness ranging from 6 to 10 mm. Flat glass for construction is manufactured using three main primary shaping processes Fig. The result is very plane-parallel, distortion-free flat glass.

Further processing of float glass. Float glass is almost always processed further to improve its functional or design properties. Often several methods are used to process panes of glass before different panes are joined or combined to form functional units.

If toughened glass is installed in areas in which it is exposed to large temperature fluctuations e. Multiple windows 1. Coupled windows are currently undergoing a renaissance as a highly integrated product, typically as a combination of a single-glazed outside opening sash and a double or tripleglazed inner sash.

Such windows can also be used as escape and emergency exit doors or windows in emergencies. After installation is completed, the casing remains visible. Window casing frames a window on four sides, while door casing forms a frame on three sides of a door top, left, right. A subframe Fig. Some have specific properties due to their materials, but they also share many structural features Fig.

The effect of some qualities of frames depends largely on their material. Wooden frames. Timber used in window frames must be evenly grown, long and straight with few knots. It must be durable, weatherproof, age only slowly, have sufficient mechanical strength, not shrink, crack or warp, and be resistant to fungus and insects. Wood used to have to be locally available and easy to work, but the former requirement is now no longer so important since many kinds of timber from a wide range of countries Fig.

One cubic metre of wood weighing kg captures approximately 1. The amount of CO2 that wood uses during its growth can be used to generate energy by burning it at the end of its life cycle. Using wood as a building material increases carbon sequestration and reduces the greenhouse effect. Special highly insulating frames combining various materials with solid core insulation are also composite frames.

Ventilation openings can be integrated into or around windows to more efficiently use natural ventilation or be combined with mechanical ventilation e. Connection between glass and frame.

The pane itself should not be load-bearing unless that is a certified feature of the product, e. They range from 60 to mm in length and are typically 2 mm wider than glazing.


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