ALAN GUTH THE INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE PDF

The Inflation Theory proposes a period of extremely rapid exponential expansion of the universe during its first few moments. It was developed around to explain several puzzles with the standard Big Bang theory, in which the universe expands relatively gradually throughout its history. While the Big Bang theory successfully explains the "blackbody spectrum" of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the origin of the light elements , it has three significant problems:. It proposes a period of extremely rapid exponential expansion of the universe prior to the more gradual Big Bang expansion, during which time the energy density of the universe was dominated by a cosmological constant -type of vacuum energy that later decayed to produce the matter and radiation that fill the universe today. Inflation was both rapid, and strong. Inflation is now considered an extension of the Big Bang theory since it explains the above puzzles so well, while retaining the basic paradigm of a homogeneous expanding universe.

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The standard model of hot big-bang cosmology requires initial conditions which are problematic in two ways: 1 The early universe is assumed to be highly homogeneous, in spite of the fact that separated regions were causally disconnected horizon problem ; and 2 the initial value of the Hubble constant must be fine tuned to extraordinary accuracy to produce a universe as flat i.

These problems would disappear if, in its early history, the universe supercooled to temperatures 28 or more orders of magnitude below the critical temperature for some phase transition. A huge expansion factor would then result from a period of exponential growth, and the entropy of the universe would be multiplied by a huge factor when the latent heat is released.

Such a scenario is completely natural in the context of grand unified models of elementary-particle interactions. In such models, the supercooling is also relevant to the problem of monopole suppression. Unfortunately, the scenario seems to lead to some unacceptable consequences, so modifications must be sought. The editors of the Physical Review journals have curated a collection of landmark papers on General Relativity to celebrate its centennial.

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Featured in Physics Free to Read. Inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems Alan H. Guth Phys. Abstract The standard model of hot big-bang cosmology requires initial conditions which are problematic in two ways: 1 The early universe is assumed to be highly homogeneous, in spite of the fact that separated regions were causally disconnected horizon problem ; and 2 the initial value of the Hubble constant must be fine tuned to extraordinary accuracy to produce a universe as flat i.

This article appears in the following collection:. Importance of the coupling-constant temperature dependence in supercooled phase transitions Marc Sher Phys. D 24 , Focus 27 , 12 Issue Vol.

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The Man Who Put the "Big" in "Big Bang": Alan Guth on Inflation

The standard model of hot big-bang cosmology requires initial conditions which are problematic in two ways: 1 The early universe is assumed to be highly homogeneous, in spite of the fact that separated regions were causally disconnected horizon problem ; and 2 the initial value of the Hubble constant must be fine tuned to extraordinary accuracy to produce a universe as flat i. These problems would disappear if, in its early history, the universe supercooled to temperatures 28 or more orders of magnitude below the critical temperature for some phase transition. A huge expansion factor would then result from a period of exponential growth, and the entropy of the universe would be multiplied by a huge factor when the latent heat is released. Such a scenario is completely natural in the context of grand unified models of elementary-particle interactions. In such models, the supercooling is also relevant to the problem of monopole suppression.

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What is the Inflation Theory?

Guth has researched elementary particle theory and how particle theory is applicable to the early universe. He graduated from MIT in in physics and stayed to receive a master's and a doctorate, also in physics. As a junior particle physicist, Guth developed the idea of cosmic inflation in at Cornell and gave his first seminar on the subject in January The results of the WMAP mission in made the case for cosmic inflation very compelling. Guth was born to a Jewish family [4] in New Brunswick, New Jersey in and grew up across the Raritan River in Highland Park , where he attended the local public schools.

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THE INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE

Inflationary theory itself is a twist on the conventional Big Bang theory. The shortcoming that inflation is intended to fill in is the basic fact that although the Big Bang theory is called the Big Bang theory it is, in fact, not really a theory of a bang at all; it never was. I'm going to describe the conventional consensus model upon which he was trying to say that the cyclic model is an improvement. I agree with what Paul said at the end of his talk about comparing these two models; it is yet to be seen which one works. But there are two grounds for comparing them. One is that in both cases the theory needs to be better developed. This is more true for the cyclic model, where one has the issue of what happens when branes collide.

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